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Phenotype and transcriptome analysis reveals chloroplast development and pigment biosynthesis together influenced the leaf color formation in mutants of Anthurium andraeanum 'Sonate'.

Yang Y, Chen X, Xu B, Li Y, Ma Y, Wang G - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Knowledge of mechanisms in anthuriums to produce leaves with different shades of green would help to effectively select desirable traits.From the 27,539 (67.1%) unigenes with annotated functions, 858 significantly differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, consisting of 446 up-regulated genes and 412 down-regulated genes.And the possible formation pathway of leaf color mutant of A. andraeanum 'Sonate' is deduced based on our results.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing, China.

ABSTRACT
Leaf color is one of the well-sought traits in breeding program for Anthurium andraeanum Lind. Knowledge of mechanisms in anthuriums to produce leaves with different shades of green would help to effectively select desirable traits. In this study, the micro- and ultra-structural and physiological features of leaves on wild type and leaf color mutants (dark green, rubescent, etiolated, albino) in A. andraeanum 'Sonate' were analyzed. Results show that chloroplasts of leaf color mutants exhibited abnormal morphology and distribution. Using next generation sequencing technology followed by de novo assembly, leaf transcriptomes comprising of 41,017 unigenes with an average sequence length of 768 bp were produced from wild type and rubescent mutant. From the 27,539 (67.1%) unigenes with annotated functions, 858 significantly differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, consisting of 446 up-regulated genes and 412 down-regulated genes. Genes that affect chloroplasts development and division, and chlorophyll biosynthesis were included in the down-regulated DEGs. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis validated that the expression level of those genes was significantly lower in the rubescent, etiolated, and albino mutant compared to wild type plants, which concurs with the differences in micro- and ultra-structures and physiological features between these two types of plants. Conclusively, the leaf color formation is greatly affected by the activity of chloroplast development and pigment biosynthesis. And the possible formation pathway of leaf color mutant of A. andraeanum 'Sonate' is deduced based on our results.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Chloroplast ultrastructures of wild type, dark green, rubescent, etiolated and albino mutants of Anthurium andraeanum ‘Sonate’. (A,B) Chloroplast ultrastructures of Wild type (In A, Bar = 5 μm; in B, Bar = 0.5 μm); (C,D) Chloroplast ultrastructures of dark green mutant (In C, Bar = 10 μm; in D, Bar = 1 μm); (E,F) 2 different chloroplast ultrastructures of rubescent mutant (Bar = 1 μm); (G) chloroplast ultrastructures of etiolated mutant (Bar = 1 μm); (H) chloroplast ultrastructure of albino mutants (Bar = 1 μm). In these pictures, G, denotes granulose; T, denotes thylakoid grana; M, denotes mitochondria; g, denotes gaps between grana lamellas; t, denotes single thylakoid sac; P, denotes plastoglobuli; V, denotes vacuole.
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Figure 4: Chloroplast ultrastructures of wild type, dark green, rubescent, etiolated and albino mutants of Anthurium andraeanum ‘Sonate’. (A,B) Chloroplast ultrastructures of Wild type (In A, Bar = 5 μm; in B, Bar = 0.5 μm); (C,D) Chloroplast ultrastructures of dark green mutant (In C, Bar = 10 μm; in D, Bar = 1 μm); (E,F) 2 different chloroplast ultrastructures of rubescent mutant (Bar = 1 μm); (G) chloroplast ultrastructures of etiolated mutant (Bar = 1 μm); (H) chloroplast ultrastructure of albino mutants (Bar = 1 μm). In these pictures, G, denotes granulose; T, denotes thylakoid grana; M, denotes mitochondria; g, denotes gaps between grana lamellas; t, denotes single thylakoid sac; P, denotes plastoglobuli; V, denotes vacuole.

Mentions: We further analyzed the ultrastructure of chloroplasts to confirm the abnormal development of chloroplasts. Results showed that in the mesophyll cells of wild type, chloroplasts showed typical structures, containing small starch granules and a few plastoglobuli (Figures 4A,B). In the dark green mutant, chloroplasts were inflated because of the accumulation of large starch granules, which also led to the formation of big gaps between stroma thylakoids (Figures 4C,D). In the rubescent mutant, chloroplasts did not have intact thylakoid structures, and some chloroplasts contained irregularly arranged vesicles (Figures 4E,F), meanwhile some chloroplasts were encompassed by mitochondria (Figure 4E). In the etiolated mutant, chloroplasts were filled with vesicles. Few of vesicles retained the thylakoid membrane, but they were not real plastoglobulus (Figure 4G). Mitochondria were also observed around some of the chloroplasts (data not shown). In the albino mutant, chloroplasts were crowded by vesicles which had almost no inner member structures. Some of the chloroplasts were also surrounded by mitochondria (Figure 4H). In summary, the ultrastructure of chloroplasts in mutant leaves were disrupted, confirming that the chloroplast development was impaired.


Phenotype and transcriptome analysis reveals chloroplast development and pigment biosynthesis together influenced the leaf color formation in mutants of Anthurium andraeanum 'Sonate'.

Yang Y, Chen X, Xu B, Li Y, Ma Y, Wang G - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Chloroplast ultrastructures of wild type, dark green, rubescent, etiolated and albino mutants of Anthurium andraeanum ‘Sonate’. (A,B) Chloroplast ultrastructures of Wild type (In A, Bar = 5 μm; in B, Bar = 0.5 μm); (C,D) Chloroplast ultrastructures of dark green mutant (In C, Bar = 10 μm; in D, Bar = 1 μm); (E,F) 2 different chloroplast ultrastructures of rubescent mutant (Bar = 1 μm); (G) chloroplast ultrastructures of etiolated mutant (Bar = 1 μm); (H) chloroplast ultrastructure of albino mutants (Bar = 1 μm). In these pictures, G, denotes granulose; T, denotes thylakoid grana; M, denotes mitochondria; g, denotes gaps between grana lamellas; t, denotes single thylakoid sac; P, denotes plastoglobuli; V, denotes vacuole.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4356079&req=5

Figure 4: Chloroplast ultrastructures of wild type, dark green, rubescent, etiolated and albino mutants of Anthurium andraeanum ‘Sonate’. (A,B) Chloroplast ultrastructures of Wild type (In A, Bar = 5 μm; in B, Bar = 0.5 μm); (C,D) Chloroplast ultrastructures of dark green mutant (In C, Bar = 10 μm; in D, Bar = 1 μm); (E,F) 2 different chloroplast ultrastructures of rubescent mutant (Bar = 1 μm); (G) chloroplast ultrastructures of etiolated mutant (Bar = 1 μm); (H) chloroplast ultrastructure of albino mutants (Bar = 1 μm). In these pictures, G, denotes granulose; T, denotes thylakoid grana; M, denotes mitochondria; g, denotes gaps between grana lamellas; t, denotes single thylakoid sac; P, denotes plastoglobuli; V, denotes vacuole.
Mentions: We further analyzed the ultrastructure of chloroplasts to confirm the abnormal development of chloroplasts. Results showed that in the mesophyll cells of wild type, chloroplasts showed typical structures, containing small starch granules and a few plastoglobuli (Figures 4A,B). In the dark green mutant, chloroplasts were inflated because of the accumulation of large starch granules, which also led to the formation of big gaps between stroma thylakoids (Figures 4C,D). In the rubescent mutant, chloroplasts did not have intact thylakoid structures, and some chloroplasts contained irregularly arranged vesicles (Figures 4E,F), meanwhile some chloroplasts were encompassed by mitochondria (Figure 4E). In the etiolated mutant, chloroplasts were filled with vesicles. Few of vesicles retained the thylakoid membrane, but they were not real plastoglobulus (Figure 4G). Mitochondria were also observed around some of the chloroplasts (data not shown). In the albino mutant, chloroplasts were crowded by vesicles which had almost no inner member structures. Some of the chloroplasts were also surrounded by mitochondria (Figure 4H). In summary, the ultrastructure of chloroplasts in mutant leaves were disrupted, confirming that the chloroplast development was impaired.

Bottom Line: Knowledge of mechanisms in anthuriums to produce leaves with different shades of green would help to effectively select desirable traits.From the 27,539 (67.1%) unigenes with annotated functions, 858 significantly differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, consisting of 446 up-regulated genes and 412 down-regulated genes.And the possible formation pathway of leaf color mutant of A. andraeanum 'Sonate' is deduced based on our results.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing, China.

ABSTRACT
Leaf color is one of the well-sought traits in breeding program for Anthurium andraeanum Lind. Knowledge of mechanisms in anthuriums to produce leaves with different shades of green would help to effectively select desirable traits. In this study, the micro- and ultra-structural and physiological features of leaves on wild type and leaf color mutants (dark green, rubescent, etiolated, albino) in A. andraeanum 'Sonate' were analyzed. Results show that chloroplasts of leaf color mutants exhibited abnormal morphology and distribution. Using next generation sequencing technology followed by de novo assembly, leaf transcriptomes comprising of 41,017 unigenes with an average sequence length of 768 bp were produced from wild type and rubescent mutant. From the 27,539 (67.1%) unigenes with annotated functions, 858 significantly differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, consisting of 446 up-regulated genes and 412 down-regulated genes. Genes that affect chloroplasts development and division, and chlorophyll biosynthesis were included in the down-regulated DEGs. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis validated that the expression level of those genes was significantly lower in the rubescent, etiolated, and albino mutant compared to wild type plants, which concurs with the differences in micro- and ultra-structures and physiological features between these two types of plants. Conclusively, the leaf color formation is greatly affected by the activity of chloroplast development and pigment biosynthesis. And the possible formation pathway of leaf color mutant of A. andraeanum 'Sonate' is deduced based on our results.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus