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Making sense of Wnt signaling-linking hair cell regeneration to development.

Jansson L, Kim GS, Cheng AG - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: The complexity of the pathway can be attributed to the myriad of Wnt and Frizzled combinations as well as its diverse context-dependent functions.In regenerating sensory organs from non-mammalian species, Wnt signaling can also regulate the extent of proliferative hair cell regeneration.We also discuss possible future directions and the potential application and limitation of Wnt signaling in augmenting hair cell regeneration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, Stanford University Stanford, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Wnt signaling is a highly conserved pathway crucial for development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Secreted Wnt ligands bind Frizzled receptors to regulate diverse processes such as axis patterning, cell division, and cell fate specification. They also serve to govern self-renewal of somatic stem cells in several adult tissues. The complexity of the pathway can be attributed to the myriad of Wnt and Frizzled combinations as well as its diverse context-dependent functions. In the developing mouse inner ear, Wnt signaling plays diverse roles, including specification of the otic placode and patterning of the otic vesicle. At later stages, its activity governs sensory hair cell specification, cell cycle regulation, and hair cell orientation. In regenerating sensory organs from non-mammalian species, Wnt signaling can also regulate the extent of proliferative hair cell regeneration. This review describes the current knowledge of the roles of Wnt signaling and Wnt-responsive cells in hair cell development and regeneration. We also discuss possible future directions and the potential application and limitation of Wnt signaling in augmenting hair cell regeneration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Model of potential roles of active Wnt signaling in hair cell regeneration. Schematic broadly depicting hair cell damage can activate supporting cells to proliferate and regenerate lost hair cells (mitotic regeneration), or to directly acquire a hair cell fate. Wnt/β-catenin signaling can increase mitotic regeneration by promoting cell cycle re-entry and also possibly by increasing Atoh1 expression.
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Figure 4: Model of potential roles of active Wnt signaling in hair cell regeneration. Schematic broadly depicting hair cell damage can activate supporting cells to proliferate and regenerate lost hair cells (mitotic regeneration), or to directly acquire a hair cell fate. Wnt/β-catenin signaling can increase mitotic regeneration by promoting cell cycle re-entry and also possibly by increasing Atoh1 expression.

Mentions: In summary, these studies in regenerating sensory organs suggest that active Wnt/β-catenin signaling can increase the extent of mitotic hair cell regeneration (Figure 4), yet the ability of activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling alone to renew proliferation and hair cell regeneration observed in the neonatal, immature mammalian cochlea appears limited in the mature, mammalian cochlea. Considering the dynamic changes of other signaling pathways during regeneration of the zebrafish lateral line system and the chick utricle, it will be critical to understand how other signals may act in concert with Wnt signaling to regulate the process of regeneration.


Making sense of Wnt signaling-linking hair cell regeneration to development.

Jansson L, Kim GS, Cheng AG - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

Model of potential roles of active Wnt signaling in hair cell regeneration. Schematic broadly depicting hair cell damage can activate supporting cells to proliferate and regenerate lost hair cells (mitotic regeneration), or to directly acquire a hair cell fate. Wnt/β-catenin signaling can increase mitotic regeneration by promoting cell cycle re-entry and also possibly by increasing Atoh1 expression.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4356074&req=5

Figure 4: Model of potential roles of active Wnt signaling in hair cell regeneration. Schematic broadly depicting hair cell damage can activate supporting cells to proliferate and regenerate lost hair cells (mitotic regeneration), or to directly acquire a hair cell fate. Wnt/β-catenin signaling can increase mitotic regeneration by promoting cell cycle re-entry and also possibly by increasing Atoh1 expression.
Mentions: In summary, these studies in regenerating sensory organs suggest that active Wnt/β-catenin signaling can increase the extent of mitotic hair cell regeneration (Figure 4), yet the ability of activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling alone to renew proliferation and hair cell regeneration observed in the neonatal, immature mammalian cochlea appears limited in the mature, mammalian cochlea. Considering the dynamic changes of other signaling pathways during regeneration of the zebrafish lateral line system and the chick utricle, it will be critical to understand how other signals may act in concert with Wnt signaling to regulate the process of regeneration.

Bottom Line: The complexity of the pathway can be attributed to the myriad of Wnt and Frizzled combinations as well as its diverse context-dependent functions.In regenerating sensory organs from non-mammalian species, Wnt signaling can also regulate the extent of proliferative hair cell regeneration.We also discuss possible future directions and the potential application and limitation of Wnt signaling in augmenting hair cell regeneration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, Stanford University Stanford, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Wnt signaling is a highly conserved pathway crucial for development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Secreted Wnt ligands bind Frizzled receptors to regulate diverse processes such as axis patterning, cell division, and cell fate specification. They also serve to govern self-renewal of somatic stem cells in several adult tissues. The complexity of the pathway can be attributed to the myriad of Wnt and Frizzled combinations as well as its diverse context-dependent functions. In the developing mouse inner ear, Wnt signaling plays diverse roles, including specification of the otic placode and patterning of the otic vesicle. At later stages, its activity governs sensory hair cell specification, cell cycle regulation, and hair cell orientation. In regenerating sensory organs from non-mammalian species, Wnt signaling can also regulate the extent of proliferative hair cell regeneration. This review describes the current knowledge of the roles of Wnt signaling and Wnt-responsive cells in hair cell development and regeneration. We also discuss possible future directions and the potential application and limitation of Wnt signaling in augmenting hair cell regeneration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus