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X-ray micro-computed tomography in willow reveals tissue patterning of reaction wood and delay in programmed cell death.

Brereton NJ, Ahmed F, Sykes D, Ray MJ, Shield I, Karp A, Murphy RJ - BMC Plant Biol. (2015)

Bottom Line: Major architectural alterations were successfully quantified in 3D and attributed to RW induction.Interestingly, a delay in programmed-cell-death (PCD) associated with TW was also clearly observed and readily quantified by μCT.The precise observation of xylem tissue development and quantification of the extent of delay in PCD provides a valuable and exciting insight into this bioenergy crop trait.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de recherche en biologie végétale, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, H1X 2B2, Canada. Nicholas.Brereton@UMontreal.ca.

ABSTRACT

Background: Variation in the reaction wood (RW) response has been shown to be a principle component driving differences in lignocellulosic sugar yield from the bioenergy crop willow. The phenotypic cause(s) behind these differences in sugar yield, beyond their common elicitor, however, remain unclear. Here we use X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) to investigate RW-associated alterations in secondary xylem tissue patterning in three dimensions (3D).

Results: Major architectural alterations were successfully quantified in 3D and attributed to RW induction. Whilst the frequency of vessels was reduced in tension wood tissue (TW), the total vessel volume was significantly increased. Interestingly, a delay in programmed-cell-death (PCD) associated with TW was also clearly observed and readily quantified by μCT.

Conclusions: The surprising degree to which the volume of vessels was increased illustrates the substantial xylem tissue remodelling involved in reaction wood formation. The remodelling suggests an important physiological compromise between structural and hydraulic architecture necessary for extensive alteration of biomass and helps to demonstrate the power of improving our perspective of cell and tissue architecture. The precise observation of xylem tissue development and quantification of the extent of delay in PCD provides a valuable and exciting insight into this bioenergy crop trait.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

3D xylem architecture. A 3D render of each ROI (TW, OW or NW) from X-ray CT scans of RW induced trees (tipped T1, T2 and T3) or controls (C1, C2 and C3). The 3D ROI render on the right after the common vessel specific transfer function was applied in silico. B Total volume of vessels as a percentage of each ROI was averaged for each tissue. C Vessel surface area:volume ratio of each ROI was averaged for each tissue. Error bars = standard error of tissue type across 3 trees. * p < 0.05 (one-way ANOVA).
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Fig4: 3D xylem architecture. A 3D render of each ROI (TW, OW or NW) from X-ray CT scans of RW induced trees (tipped T1, T2 and T3) or controls (C1, C2 and C3). The 3D ROI render on the right after the common vessel specific transfer function was applied in silico. B Total volume of vessels as a percentage of each ROI was averaged for each tissue. C Vessel surface area:volume ratio of each ROI was averaged for each tissue. Error bars = standard error of tissue type across 3 trees. * p < 0.05 (one-way ANOVA).

Mentions: As well as quantifying average voxel intensity, voxels can be binned according to intensity in silico, this can be applied to each rendered volume using a common transfer function as part of the image processing [19] to quantify (and view) voxel groups of similar intensity. In this way it was possible to isolate the vessel elements within each tissue type to compare architectural changes generated by RW induction (Figure 4).Figure 4


X-ray micro-computed tomography in willow reveals tissue patterning of reaction wood and delay in programmed cell death.

Brereton NJ, Ahmed F, Sykes D, Ray MJ, Shield I, Karp A, Murphy RJ - BMC Plant Biol. (2015)

3D xylem architecture. A 3D render of each ROI (TW, OW or NW) from X-ray CT scans of RW induced trees (tipped T1, T2 and T3) or controls (C1, C2 and C3). The 3D ROI render on the right after the common vessel specific transfer function was applied in silico. B Total volume of vessels as a percentage of each ROI was averaged for each tissue. C Vessel surface area:volume ratio of each ROI was averaged for each tissue. Error bars = standard error of tissue type across 3 trees. * p < 0.05 (one-way ANOVA).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4356063&req=5

Fig4: 3D xylem architecture. A 3D render of each ROI (TW, OW or NW) from X-ray CT scans of RW induced trees (tipped T1, T2 and T3) or controls (C1, C2 and C3). The 3D ROI render on the right after the common vessel specific transfer function was applied in silico. B Total volume of vessels as a percentage of each ROI was averaged for each tissue. C Vessel surface area:volume ratio of each ROI was averaged for each tissue. Error bars = standard error of tissue type across 3 trees. * p < 0.05 (one-way ANOVA).
Mentions: As well as quantifying average voxel intensity, voxels can be binned according to intensity in silico, this can be applied to each rendered volume using a common transfer function as part of the image processing [19] to quantify (and view) voxel groups of similar intensity. In this way it was possible to isolate the vessel elements within each tissue type to compare architectural changes generated by RW induction (Figure 4).Figure 4

Bottom Line: Major architectural alterations were successfully quantified in 3D and attributed to RW induction.Interestingly, a delay in programmed-cell-death (PCD) associated with TW was also clearly observed and readily quantified by μCT.The precise observation of xylem tissue development and quantification of the extent of delay in PCD provides a valuable and exciting insight into this bioenergy crop trait.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de recherche en biologie végétale, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, H1X 2B2, Canada. Nicholas.Brereton@UMontreal.ca.

ABSTRACT

Background: Variation in the reaction wood (RW) response has been shown to be a principle component driving differences in lignocellulosic sugar yield from the bioenergy crop willow. The phenotypic cause(s) behind these differences in sugar yield, beyond their common elicitor, however, remain unclear. Here we use X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) to investigate RW-associated alterations in secondary xylem tissue patterning in three dimensions (3D).

Results: Major architectural alterations were successfully quantified in 3D and attributed to RW induction. Whilst the frequency of vessels was reduced in tension wood tissue (TW), the total vessel volume was significantly increased. Interestingly, a delay in programmed-cell-death (PCD) associated with TW was also clearly observed and readily quantified by μCT.

Conclusions: The surprising degree to which the volume of vessels was increased illustrates the substantial xylem tissue remodelling involved in reaction wood formation. The remodelling suggests an important physiological compromise between structural and hydraulic architecture necessary for extensive alteration of biomass and helps to demonstrate the power of improving our perspective of cell and tissue architecture. The precise observation of xylem tissue development and quantification of the extent of delay in PCD provides a valuable and exciting insight into this bioenergy crop trait.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus