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16S gut community of the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort.

Ross MC, Muzny DM, McCormick JB, Gibbs RA, Fisher-Hoch SP, Petrosino JF - Microbiome (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that these communities, when compared to Human Microbiome Project subjects, exhibit community shifts often observed in obese and T2D individuals in published studies.We identified a group of seven genera that form a tightly interconnected network present in all four tested datasets, dominated by butyrate producers, which are often increased in obese individuals while being depleted in T2D patients.The lack of CCHC subject gut community segregation based on all tested metadata suggests that the community structure we observe in the CCHC likely occurs early in life, and endures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Alkek Center for Metagenomics and Microbiome Research, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX USA ; Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are major public health concerns worldwide, and their prevalence has only increased in recent years. Mexican Americans are disproportionately afflicted by obesity and T2D, and rates are even higher in the United States-Mexico border region. To determine the factors associated with the increased risk of T2D, obesity, and other diseases in this population, the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort was established in 2004.

Results: In this study, we characterized the 16S gut community of a subset of 63 subjects from this unique cohort. We found that these communities, when compared to Human Microbiome Project subjects, exhibit community shifts often observed in obese and T2D individuals in published studies. We also examined microbial network relationships between operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC) and three additional datasets. We identified a group of seven genera that form a tightly interconnected network present in all four tested datasets, dominated by butyrate producers, which are often increased in obese individuals while being depleted in T2D patients.

Conclusions: Through a combination of increased disease prevalence and relatively high gut microbial homogeneity in the subset of CCHC members we examined, we believe that the CCHC may represent an ideal community to dissect mechanisms underlying the role of the gut microbiome in human health and disease. The lack of CCHC subject gut community segregation based on all tested metadata suggests that the community structure we observe in the CCHC likely occurs early in life, and endures. This persistent 'disease'-related gut microbial community in CCHC subjects may enhance existing genetic or lifestyle predispositions to the prevalent diseases of the CCHC, leading to increased attack rates of obesity, T2D, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and others.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Heat maps showing the strength of OTU correlations calculated by the SparCC algorithm. These heat maps represent the strength of pairwise OTU-OTU co-occurrence/co-exclusion calculations made by the SparCC algorithm. Scores range from −1, a perfect negative correlation, to 1, a perfect positive correlation. (A) Cameron County Hispanic Cohort subjects. (B) Human Microbiome Project subjects. (C) Type 1 diabetes cohort subjects. (D) Elderly Irish cohort subjects. For (A), (B), and (C) only OTUs with a correlation above 0.4 were plotted for clarity. For (D), OTUs with a correlation above 0.3 were plotted.
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Fig8: Heat maps showing the strength of OTU correlations calculated by the SparCC algorithm. These heat maps represent the strength of pairwise OTU-OTU co-occurrence/co-exclusion calculations made by the SparCC algorithm. Scores range from −1, a perfect negative correlation, to 1, a perfect positive correlation. (A) Cameron County Hispanic Cohort subjects. (B) Human Microbiome Project subjects. (C) Type 1 diabetes cohort subjects. (D) Elderly Irish cohort subjects. For (A), (B), and (C) only OTUs with a correlation above 0.4 were plotted for clarity. For (D), OTUs with a correlation above 0.3 were plotted.

Mentions: We incorporated two additional, unrelated datasets to diversify the population for the OTU correlation analysis to determine whether correlated OTUs could either remain so across diverse populations, age groups, and socioeconomic backgrounds or whether these correlations may only hold true for certain population strata. These additional datasets include a type 1 diabetes cohort from Mexico [57] and an elderly cohort from Ireland [65] (Figure 8). We identified 22 OTU pairs that were positively correlated in at least three of the four datasets, suggesting a mutualistic relationship or possibly codependency (Figure 9). Additionally, these 22 OTU pairs only comprise 11 distinct genera, with only 7 genera contained in 18 of the pairings. This highlights a small network of highly correlated OTUs present in the human gut. Of these seven highly correlated OTUs, five belong to the butyrate-producing family Lachnospiraceae, while the remaining two belong to Ruminococcaceae. Of these seven genera, all but one, Lachnospira, were significantly increased in the CCHC compared to the HMP. Many of these genera are noted for containing species that produce butyrate through fermentation of hydrolyzed polysaccharides and may explain the low rates of colon cancer seen in this population. Additional studies have observed depletion of these genera in T2D, suggesting that diminished butyrate production in the gut may play a role in the pathogenesis of T2D [66].Figure 8


16S gut community of the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort.

Ross MC, Muzny DM, McCormick JB, Gibbs RA, Fisher-Hoch SP, Petrosino JF - Microbiome (2015)

Heat maps showing the strength of OTU correlations calculated by the SparCC algorithm. These heat maps represent the strength of pairwise OTU-OTU co-occurrence/co-exclusion calculations made by the SparCC algorithm. Scores range from −1, a perfect negative correlation, to 1, a perfect positive correlation. (A) Cameron County Hispanic Cohort subjects. (B) Human Microbiome Project subjects. (C) Type 1 diabetes cohort subjects. (D) Elderly Irish cohort subjects. For (A), (B), and (C) only OTUs with a correlation above 0.4 were plotted for clarity. For (D), OTUs with a correlation above 0.3 were plotted.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4355967&req=5

Fig8: Heat maps showing the strength of OTU correlations calculated by the SparCC algorithm. These heat maps represent the strength of pairwise OTU-OTU co-occurrence/co-exclusion calculations made by the SparCC algorithm. Scores range from −1, a perfect negative correlation, to 1, a perfect positive correlation. (A) Cameron County Hispanic Cohort subjects. (B) Human Microbiome Project subjects. (C) Type 1 diabetes cohort subjects. (D) Elderly Irish cohort subjects. For (A), (B), and (C) only OTUs with a correlation above 0.4 were plotted for clarity. For (D), OTUs with a correlation above 0.3 were plotted.
Mentions: We incorporated two additional, unrelated datasets to diversify the population for the OTU correlation analysis to determine whether correlated OTUs could either remain so across diverse populations, age groups, and socioeconomic backgrounds or whether these correlations may only hold true for certain population strata. These additional datasets include a type 1 diabetes cohort from Mexico [57] and an elderly cohort from Ireland [65] (Figure 8). We identified 22 OTU pairs that were positively correlated in at least three of the four datasets, suggesting a mutualistic relationship or possibly codependency (Figure 9). Additionally, these 22 OTU pairs only comprise 11 distinct genera, with only 7 genera contained in 18 of the pairings. This highlights a small network of highly correlated OTUs present in the human gut. Of these seven highly correlated OTUs, five belong to the butyrate-producing family Lachnospiraceae, while the remaining two belong to Ruminococcaceae. Of these seven genera, all but one, Lachnospira, were significantly increased in the CCHC compared to the HMP. Many of these genera are noted for containing species that produce butyrate through fermentation of hydrolyzed polysaccharides and may explain the low rates of colon cancer seen in this population. Additional studies have observed depletion of these genera in T2D, suggesting that diminished butyrate production in the gut may play a role in the pathogenesis of T2D [66].Figure 8

Bottom Line: We found that these communities, when compared to Human Microbiome Project subjects, exhibit community shifts often observed in obese and T2D individuals in published studies.We identified a group of seven genera that form a tightly interconnected network present in all four tested datasets, dominated by butyrate producers, which are often increased in obese individuals while being depleted in T2D patients.The lack of CCHC subject gut community segregation based on all tested metadata suggests that the community structure we observe in the CCHC likely occurs early in life, and endures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Alkek Center for Metagenomics and Microbiome Research, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX USA ; Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are major public health concerns worldwide, and their prevalence has only increased in recent years. Mexican Americans are disproportionately afflicted by obesity and T2D, and rates are even higher in the United States-Mexico border region. To determine the factors associated with the increased risk of T2D, obesity, and other diseases in this population, the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort was established in 2004.

Results: In this study, we characterized the 16S gut community of a subset of 63 subjects from this unique cohort. We found that these communities, when compared to Human Microbiome Project subjects, exhibit community shifts often observed in obese and T2D individuals in published studies. We also examined microbial network relationships between operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC) and three additional datasets. We identified a group of seven genera that form a tightly interconnected network present in all four tested datasets, dominated by butyrate producers, which are often increased in obese individuals while being depleted in T2D patients.

Conclusions: Through a combination of increased disease prevalence and relatively high gut microbial homogeneity in the subset of CCHC members we examined, we believe that the CCHC may represent an ideal community to dissect mechanisms underlying the role of the gut microbiome in human health and disease. The lack of CCHC subject gut community segregation based on all tested metadata suggests that the community structure we observe in the CCHC likely occurs early in life, and endures. This persistent 'disease'-related gut microbial community in CCHC subjects may enhance existing genetic or lifestyle predispositions to the prevalent diseases of the CCHC, leading to increased attack rates of obesity, T2D, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and others.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus