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The effect of preventive educational program in cigarette smoking: Extended Parallel Process Model.

Gharlipour Z, Hazavehei SM, Moeini B, Nazari M, Beigi AM, Tavassoli E, Heydarabadi AB, Reisi M, Barkati H - J Educ Health Promot (2015)

Bottom Line: Our results indicated that there was a significant difference between students in the control and experimental groups in the means of perceived susceptibility (P < 0.000, t = 6.84), perceived severity (P < 0.000, t = -11.46), perceived response efficacy (P < 0.000, t = -7.07), perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.000, t = -11.64), and preventive behavior (P < 0.000, t = -24.36).EPPM along with educating skills necessary to resist against peer pressure had significant level of efficiency in improving preventive behavior of cigarette smoking among adolescents.However, this study recommends further studies on ways of increasing perceived susceptibility in cigarette smoking among adolescents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health, School of Health, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the preventable causes of diseases and deaths. The most important preventive measure is technique to resist against peer pressure. Any educational program should design with an emphasis upon theories of behavioral change and based on effective educational program. To investigate the interventions through educational program in prevention of cigarette smoking, this paper has used the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM).

Materials and methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study. Two middle schools were randomly selected from male students in Shiraz. Therefore, we randomly selected 120 students for the experimental group and 120 students for the control group. After diagnostic evaluation, educational interventions on the consequences of smoking and preventive skills were applied.

Results: Our results indicated that there was a significant difference between students in the control and experimental groups in the means of perceived susceptibility (P < 0.000, t = 6.84), perceived severity (P < 0.000, t = -11.46), perceived response efficacy (P < 0.000, t = -7.07), perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.000, t = -11.64), and preventive behavior (P < 0.000, t = -24.36).

Conclusions: EPPM along with educating skills necessary to resist against peer pressure had significant level of efficiency in improving preventive behavior of cigarette smoking among adolescents. However, this study recommends further studies on ways of increasing perceived susceptibility in cigarette smoking among adolescents.

No MeSH data available.


The extended parallel process model. adapted from witte (1994)[53]
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Figure 1: The extended parallel process model. adapted from witte (1994)[53]

Mentions: In other words, the age of initiation of cigarette smoking is decreasing.[13141516] Mohtasham Amiri[17] and WHO report[4] showed that the average age to initiate cigarette smoking was at 13 years. Other studies indicated that the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescents was related to a smoker among family members, friends, the lack of knowledge about consequences of cigarette smoking, socioeconomic status of the parents, and school conditions.[18192021] Therefore, researchers in industrial countries have emphasized upon prevention of smoking in young people, and programs have been designed and implemented to achieve this objective. These programs aimed to improve students’ knowledge, change in their attitudes, and behavior with a level of success.[222324] Thus, any program aimed for training resistance skills against drug abuse, and cigarette smoking should be implemented with an emphasis upon theories of behavioral change and based on effective educational programs. A fear-based theory is the effective approach for preventing unhealthy behaviors. Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) provides a major theoretical framework of change in behavior.[2526] Because adolescents can be predisposed to engage in high-risk behaviors. Therefore, this is an attempt to apply the EPPM for designing effective programs to reduce high-risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking [Figure 1].


The effect of preventive educational program in cigarette smoking: Extended Parallel Process Model.

Gharlipour Z, Hazavehei SM, Moeini B, Nazari M, Beigi AM, Tavassoli E, Heydarabadi AB, Reisi M, Barkati H - J Educ Health Promot (2015)

The extended parallel process model. adapted from witte (1994)[53]
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4355839&req=5

Figure 1: The extended parallel process model. adapted from witte (1994)[53]
Mentions: In other words, the age of initiation of cigarette smoking is decreasing.[13141516] Mohtasham Amiri[17] and WHO report[4] showed that the average age to initiate cigarette smoking was at 13 years. Other studies indicated that the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescents was related to a smoker among family members, friends, the lack of knowledge about consequences of cigarette smoking, socioeconomic status of the parents, and school conditions.[18192021] Therefore, researchers in industrial countries have emphasized upon prevention of smoking in young people, and programs have been designed and implemented to achieve this objective. These programs aimed to improve students’ knowledge, change in their attitudes, and behavior with a level of success.[222324] Thus, any program aimed for training resistance skills against drug abuse, and cigarette smoking should be implemented with an emphasis upon theories of behavioral change and based on effective educational programs. A fear-based theory is the effective approach for preventing unhealthy behaviors. Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) provides a major theoretical framework of change in behavior.[2526] Because adolescents can be predisposed to engage in high-risk behaviors. Therefore, this is an attempt to apply the EPPM for designing effective programs to reduce high-risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking [Figure 1].

Bottom Line: Our results indicated that there was a significant difference between students in the control and experimental groups in the means of perceived susceptibility (P < 0.000, t = 6.84), perceived severity (P < 0.000, t = -11.46), perceived response efficacy (P < 0.000, t = -7.07), perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.000, t = -11.64), and preventive behavior (P < 0.000, t = -24.36).EPPM along with educating skills necessary to resist against peer pressure had significant level of efficiency in improving preventive behavior of cigarette smoking among adolescents.However, this study recommends further studies on ways of increasing perceived susceptibility in cigarette smoking among adolescents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health, School of Health, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the preventable causes of diseases and deaths. The most important preventive measure is technique to resist against peer pressure. Any educational program should design with an emphasis upon theories of behavioral change and based on effective educational program. To investigate the interventions through educational program in prevention of cigarette smoking, this paper has used the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM).

Materials and methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study. Two middle schools were randomly selected from male students in Shiraz. Therefore, we randomly selected 120 students for the experimental group and 120 students for the control group. After diagnostic evaluation, educational interventions on the consequences of smoking and preventive skills were applied.

Results: Our results indicated that there was a significant difference between students in the control and experimental groups in the means of perceived susceptibility (P < 0.000, t = 6.84), perceived severity (P < 0.000, t = -11.46), perceived response efficacy (P < 0.000, t = -7.07), perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.000, t = -11.64), and preventive behavior (P < 0.000, t = -24.36).

Conclusions: EPPM along with educating skills necessary to resist against peer pressure had significant level of efficiency in improving preventive behavior of cigarette smoking among adolescents. However, this study recommends further studies on ways of increasing perceived susceptibility in cigarette smoking among adolescents.

No MeSH data available.