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Pattern transformation of heat-shrinkable polymer by three-dimensional (3D) printing technique.

Zhang Q, Yan D, Zhang K, Hu G - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: A significant challenge in conventional heat-shrinkable polymers is to produce controllable microstructures.It is shown that a uniform internal strain is stored in the polymer during the printing process and can be released when heated above its glass transition temperature.Our work provides insightful ideas to understand a novel mechanism on the heat-shrinkable effect of printed material, but also to present a simple approach to fabricate heat-shrinkable polymer with a controllable thermo-structural response.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

ABSTRACT
A significant challenge in conventional heat-shrinkable polymers is to produce controllable microstructures. Here we report that the polymer material fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) printing technique has a heat-shrinkable property, whose initial microstructure can undergo a spontaneous pattern transformation under heating. The underlying mechanism is revealed by evaluating internal strain of the printed polymer from its fabricating process. It is shown that a uniform internal strain is stored in the polymer during the printing process and can be released when heated above its glass transition temperature. Furthermore, the internal strain can be used to trigger the pattern transformation of the heat-shrinkable polymer in a controllable way. Our work provides insightful ideas to understand a novel mechanism on the heat-shrinkable effect of printed material, but also to present a simple approach to fabricate heat-shrinkable polymer with a controllable thermo-structural response.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic of fabrication process for 3D printing technique and the corresponding deformation of printed polymer described by a viscoelastic model.(a) The fused polymer is extruded from the nozzle and a constant strain is formed due to the moving of nozzle before it is bonded onto the platform of the 3D printer; (b) The printed polymer cools, solidifies, and bonds with platform or neighboring material and internal strain is generated during the process; (c) Removing the printed polymer from the platform leads to the recovery of elastic deformation, but an internal strain related to phase transition is stored in the printed polymer; (d) Internal strain stored in the polymer is released when reheated above its glass transition temperature, and can be explored to trigger pattern transformation of heat-shrinkable polymer.
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f3: Schematic of fabrication process for 3D printing technique and the corresponding deformation of printed polymer described by a viscoelastic model.(a) The fused polymer is extruded from the nozzle and a constant strain is formed due to the moving of nozzle before it is bonded onto the platform of the 3D printer; (b) The printed polymer cools, solidifies, and bonds with platform or neighboring material and internal strain is generated during the process; (c) Removing the printed polymer from the platform leads to the recovery of elastic deformation, but an internal strain related to phase transition is stored in the printed polymer; (d) Internal strain stored in the polymer is released when reheated above its glass transition temperature, and can be explored to trigger pattern transformation of heat-shrinkable polymer.

Mentions: The 3D printing technique used here is based on the fused deposition modeling (FDM), and its fabrication process is illustrated schematically in Fig. 3. The PLA material is firstly fused in the furnace of 3D printer, and then extruded from the nozzle. The printed material cools, solidifies, and bonds with platform or adjacent existing layers (Figs. 3(a) and 3(b)). During the fabricating process, the heating and rapid cooling cycles of the printed material will accumulate internal stress/strain due to the constraint of the platform or the existing layers. When removing the printed polymer from the platform (Fig. 3(c)), internal strain related to phase transition of the polymer can be stored for a long time, because the recovery of the polymer chains is prohibited below glass transition temperature (Tg). By subsequent heating above Tg, the stored strain can be released as the polymer chains are liberated, and can trigger shrinkage or pattern transformation of polymer (Fig. 3(d)).


Pattern transformation of heat-shrinkable polymer by three-dimensional (3D) printing technique.

Zhang Q, Yan D, Zhang K, Hu G - Sci Rep (2015)

Schematic of fabrication process for 3D printing technique and the corresponding deformation of printed polymer described by a viscoelastic model.(a) The fused polymer is extruded from the nozzle and a constant strain is formed due to the moving of nozzle before it is bonded onto the platform of the 3D printer; (b) The printed polymer cools, solidifies, and bonds with platform or neighboring material and internal strain is generated during the process; (c) Removing the printed polymer from the platform leads to the recovery of elastic deformation, but an internal strain related to phase transition is stored in the printed polymer; (d) Internal strain stored in the polymer is released when reheated above its glass transition temperature, and can be explored to trigger pattern transformation of heat-shrinkable polymer.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4355736&req=5

f3: Schematic of fabrication process for 3D printing technique and the corresponding deformation of printed polymer described by a viscoelastic model.(a) The fused polymer is extruded from the nozzle and a constant strain is formed due to the moving of nozzle before it is bonded onto the platform of the 3D printer; (b) The printed polymer cools, solidifies, and bonds with platform or neighboring material and internal strain is generated during the process; (c) Removing the printed polymer from the platform leads to the recovery of elastic deformation, but an internal strain related to phase transition is stored in the printed polymer; (d) Internal strain stored in the polymer is released when reheated above its glass transition temperature, and can be explored to trigger pattern transformation of heat-shrinkable polymer.
Mentions: The 3D printing technique used here is based on the fused deposition modeling (FDM), and its fabrication process is illustrated schematically in Fig. 3. The PLA material is firstly fused in the furnace of 3D printer, and then extruded from the nozzle. The printed material cools, solidifies, and bonds with platform or adjacent existing layers (Figs. 3(a) and 3(b)). During the fabricating process, the heating and rapid cooling cycles of the printed material will accumulate internal stress/strain due to the constraint of the platform or the existing layers. When removing the printed polymer from the platform (Fig. 3(c)), internal strain related to phase transition of the polymer can be stored for a long time, because the recovery of the polymer chains is prohibited below glass transition temperature (Tg). By subsequent heating above Tg, the stored strain can be released as the polymer chains are liberated, and can trigger shrinkage or pattern transformation of polymer (Fig. 3(d)).

Bottom Line: A significant challenge in conventional heat-shrinkable polymers is to produce controllable microstructures.It is shown that a uniform internal strain is stored in the polymer during the printing process and can be released when heated above its glass transition temperature.Our work provides insightful ideas to understand a novel mechanism on the heat-shrinkable effect of printed material, but also to present a simple approach to fabricate heat-shrinkable polymer with a controllable thermo-structural response.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

ABSTRACT
A significant challenge in conventional heat-shrinkable polymers is to produce controllable microstructures. Here we report that the polymer material fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) printing technique has a heat-shrinkable property, whose initial microstructure can undergo a spontaneous pattern transformation under heating. The underlying mechanism is revealed by evaluating internal strain of the printed polymer from its fabricating process. It is shown that a uniform internal strain is stored in the polymer during the printing process and can be released when heated above its glass transition temperature. Furthermore, the internal strain can be used to trigger the pattern transformation of the heat-shrinkable polymer in a controllable way. Our work provides insightful ideas to understand a novel mechanism on the heat-shrinkable effect of printed material, but also to present a simple approach to fabricate heat-shrinkable polymer with a controllable thermo-structural response.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus