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The coelacanth rostral organ is a unique low-resolution electro-detector that facilitates the feeding strike.

Berquist RM, Galinsky VL, Kajiura SM, Frank LR - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: This morphology facilitates neural encoding of local electric field intensity, orientation, and polarity, used for determining the position of nearby prey.The coelacanth rostral organ electric sense, however, is unique in having only three paired sensory canals with distribution restricted to the dorsal snout, raising questions about its function.This identified a unique focal region of electrosensitivity directly in front of the mouth, and is the first evidence of a low-resolution electro-detector that solely facilitates prey ingestion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Scientific Computation in Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037.

ABSTRACT
The cartilaginous and non-neopterygian bony fishes have an electric sense typically comprised of hundreds or thousands of sensory canals distributed in broad clusters over the head. This morphology facilitates neural encoding of local electric field intensity, orientation, and polarity, used for determining the position of nearby prey. The coelacanth rostral organ electric sense, however, is unique in having only three paired sensory canals with distribution restricted to the dorsal snout, raising questions about its function. To address this, we employed magnetic resonance imaging methods to map electrosensory canal morphology in the extant coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae, and a simple dipole 'rabbit ears' antennae model with toroidal gain function to approximate their directional sensitivity. This identified a unique focal region of electrosensitivity directly in front of the mouth, and is the first evidence of a low-resolution electro-detector that solely facilitates prey ingestion.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Antennae gain function plots for the three pairs of rostral organ electrosensory tubules in the extant coelacanth, L. chalumnae.The rostral organ located in the ethmoid region of the dorsal snout is depicted in white. Each of its three pairs of electrosensory tubules are represented by a simple dipole “rabbit ears” antenna with toroidal gain function (posterior superior pair (yellow), posterior inferior pair (pink), and anterior pair (green)). The region of overlap of these three tori corresponds to the localized electrosensory detection area, which is depicted by the white sphere in close proximity to the front of the mouth.
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f2: Antennae gain function plots for the three pairs of rostral organ electrosensory tubules in the extant coelacanth, L. chalumnae.The rostral organ located in the ethmoid region of the dorsal snout is depicted in white. Each of its three pairs of electrosensory tubules are represented by a simple dipole “rabbit ears” antenna with toroidal gain function (posterior superior pair (yellow), posterior inferior pair (pink), and anterior pair (green)). The region of overlap of these three tori corresponds to the localized electrosensory detection area, which is depicted by the white sphere in close proximity to the front of the mouth.

Mentions: Electrical antennae gain function plots, estimating the spatial configuration of rostral organ electrosensitivity, produced three discrete overlapping tori surrounding the dorsal and lateral snout in front of the eyes, and one region of overlap situated in a relatively restricted region of space in front of the mouth (Fig. 2). This region of toroidal overlap, depicted by the white sphere, outlines an area in space of approximately equal (or balanced) sensitivity for all of the tubule electrosensors, and is where the rostral organ is expected to have maximum functional sensitivity. Different prey can generate electric fields of different strengths, and thus can be sensed at varying gain levels, depending on the sensory threshold used for the detectors. The exact shape of the overlapping, or balanced, sensory region will therefore vary with changes in gain, from a single point (or a sphere with a very small radius) when the gain is very small, to a larger, more complex shaped area enclosed by surfaces of nested tori when the gain is increased. However, its general location in the vicinity of the mouth does not significantly change, irrespective of sensitivity threshold, or of prey field strength.


The coelacanth rostral organ is a unique low-resolution electro-detector that facilitates the feeding strike.

Berquist RM, Galinsky VL, Kajiura SM, Frank LR - Sci Rep (2015)

Antennae gain function plots for the three pairs of rostral organ electrosensory tubules in the extant coelacanth, L. chalumnae.The rostral organ located in the ethmoid region of the dorsal snout is depicted in white. Each of its three pairs of electrosensory tubules are represented by a simple dipole “rabbit ears” antenna with toroidal gain function (posterior superior pair (yellow), posterior inferior pair (pink), and anterior pair (green)). The region of overlap of these three tori corresponds to the localized electrosensory detection area, which is depicted by the white sphere in close proximity to the front of the mouth.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4355723&req=5

f2: Antennae gain function plots for the three pairs of rostral organ electrosensory tubules in the extant coelacanth, L. chalumnae.The rostral organ located in the ethmoid region of the dorsal snout is depicted in white. Each of its three pairs of electrosensory tubules are represented by a simple dipole “rabbit ears” antenna with toroidal gain function (posterior superior pair (yellow), posterior inferior pair (pink), and anterior pair (green)). The region of overlap of these three tori corresponds to the localized electrosensory detection area, which is depicted by the white sphere in close proximity to the front of the mouth.
Mentions: Electrical antennae gain function plots, estimating the spatial configuration of rostral organ electrosensitivity, produced three discrete overlapping tori surrounding the dorsal and lateral snout in front of the eyes, and one region of overlap situated in a relatively restricted region of space in front of the mouth (Fig. 2). This region of toroidal overlap, depicted by the white sphere, outlines an area in space of approximately equal (or balanced) sensitivity for all of the tubule electrosensors, and is where the rostral organ is expected to have maximum functional sensitivity. Different prey can generate electric fields of different strengths, and thus can be sensed at varying gain levels, depending on the sensory threshold used for the detectors. The exact shape of the overlapping, or balanced, sensory region will therefore vary with changes in gain, from a single point (or a sphere with a very small radius) when the gain is very small, to a larger, more complex shaped area enclosed by surfaces of nested tori when the gain is increased. However, its general location in the vicinity of the mouth does not significantly change, irrespective of sensitivity threshold, or of prey field strength.

Bottom Line: This morphology facilitates neural encoding of local electric field intensity, orientation, and polarity, used for determining the position of nearby prey.The coelacanth rostral organ electric sense, however, is unique in having only three paired sensory canals with distribution restricted to the dorsal snout, raising questions about its function.This identified a unique focal region of electrosensitivity directly in front of the mouth, and is the first evidence of a low-resolution electro-detector that solely facilitates prey ingestion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Scientific Computation in Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037.

ABSTRACT
The cartilaginous and non-neopterygian bony fishes have an electric sense typically comprised of hundreds or thousands of sensory canals distributed in broad clusters over the head. This morphology facilitates neural encoding of local electric field intensity, orientation, and polarity, used for determining the position of nearby prey. The coelacanth rostral organ electric sense, however, is unique in having only three paired sensory canals with distribution restricted to the dorsal snout, raising questions about its function. To address this, we employed magnetic resonance imaging methods to map electrosensory canal morphology in the extant coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae, and a simple dipole 'rabbit ears' antennae model with toroidal gain function to approximate their directional sensitivity. This identified a unique focal region of electrosensitivity directly in front of the mouth, and is the first evidence of a low-resolution electro-detector that solely facilitates prey ingestion.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus