Limits...
The vaginal microbiome during pregnancy and the postpartum period in a European population.

MacIntyre DA, Chandiramani M, Lee YS, Kindinger L, Smith A, Angelopoulos N, Lehne B, Arulkumaran S, Brown R, Teoh TG, Holmes E, Nicoholson JK, Marchesi JR, Bennett PR - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: While the pregnancy vaginal microbiome was characteristically dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and low alpha-diversity, unlike Northern American populations, a significant number of pregnant women this British population had a L. jensenii-dominated microbiome characterised by low alpha-diversity.L. jensenii was predominantly observed in women of Asian and Caucasian ethnicity whereas L. gasseri was absent in samples from Black women.This study reveals new insights into biogeographical and ethnic effects upon the pregnancy and postpartum vaginal microbiome and has important implications for future studies exploring relationships between the vaginal microbiome, host health and pregnancy outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Imperial College Parturition Research Group, Division of the Institute of Reproduction and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, UK.

ABSTRACT
The composition and structure of the pregnancy vaginal microbiome may influence susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Studies on the pregnant vaginal microbiome have largely been limited to Northern American populations. Using MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we characterised the vaginal microbiota of a mixed British cohort of women (n = 42) who experienced uncomplicated term delivery and who were sampled longitudinally throughout pregnancy (8-12, 20-22, 28-30 and 34-36 weeks gestation) and 6 weeks postpartum. We show that vaginal microbiome composition dramatically changes postpartum to become less Lactobacillus spp. dominant with increased alpha-diversity irrespective of the community structure during pregnancy and independent of ethnicity. While the pregnancy vaginal microbiome was characteristically dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and low alpha-diversity, unlike Northern American populations, a significant number of pregnant women this British population had a L. jensenii-dominated microbiome characterised by low alpha-diversity. L. jensenii was predominantly observed in women of Asian and Caucasian ethnicity whereas L. gasseri was absent in samples from Black women. This study reveals new insights into biogeographical and ethnic effects upon the pregnancy and postpartum vaginal microbiome and has important implications for future studies exploring relationships between the vaginal microbiome, host health and pregnancy outcomes.

No MeSH data available.


Vaginal community state types (CST) throughout pregnancy and postpartum in a UK population.(A) Longitudinal samples were assigned to CSTs on the basis of ward linkage clustering of microbial species data (CST I, red; CST II, green; CST III, orange, CST IV, blue and CST V, yellow. CST * indicates Lactobacillus amylovorous dominated microbiome). Corresponding inverse Simpson indices are presented adjacent (white indicates low diversity, dark blue indicates high diversity). (B) Samples from CST I displayed the lowest diversity as measured by the mean inverse Simpson index whereas CST IV showed significantly higher diversity. No difference in diversity was observed between CST I and CST V. (C) CST IV was associated with increased richness as described by number of species observed. ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05. Kruskall-Wallis test (Dunn's post hoc).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4355684&req=5

f3: Vaginal community state types (CST) throughout pregnancy and postpartum in a UK population.(A) Longitudinal samples were assigned to CSTs on the basis of ward linkage clustering of microbial species data (CST I, red; CST II, green; CST III, orange, CST IV, blue and CST V, yellow. CST * indicates Lactobacillus amylovorous dominated microbiome). Corresponding inverse Simpson indices are presented adjacent (white indicates low diversity, dark blue indicates high diversity). (B) Samples from CST I displayed the lowest diversity as measured by the mean inverse Simpson index whereas CST IV showed significantly higher diversity. No difference in diversity was observed between CST I and CST V. (C) CST IV was associated with increased richness as described by number of species observed. ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05. Kruskall-Wallis test (Dunn's post hoc).

Mentions: The dynamics of vaginal CSTs during pregnancy and postpartum was assessed in longitudinally collected samples (Figure 3A, Table 1, Supplementary Tables 1–3). Pregnant vaginal communities dominated by L. crispatus (CST I) had the lowest alpha diversity and richness as well as the greatest stability during pregnancy (Figure 3B and C). In samples where L. crispatus was dominant it was the only species seen in 85% of samples, with the other 15% samples showing only very small proportions of other Lactobacillus spp. or bacteria from the class Prevotella. Low diversity and richness was also seen in CST V where L. jensenii was the dominant species in 70% of samples, with small proportions of other Lactobacillus spp. observed in the remaining 30% of samples. Slightly higher alpha diversity and richness was observed in CST II and CST III vaginal microbiomes however, the highest diversity and richness indices were reported for those women with CST IV. While only 2% (3/157) of samples collected throughout pregnancy had a microbiome assigned to CST IV, 60% (9/15) of samples collected postpartum displayed a microbiome consistent with this diverse community state despite having Lactobacillus spp. dominated vaginal microbiomes through the duration of pregnancy.


The vaginal microbiome during pregnancy and the postpartum period in a European population.

MacIntyre DA, Chandiramani M, Lee YS, Kindinger L, Smith A, Angelopoulos N, Lehne B, Arulkumaran S, Brown R, Teoh TG, Holmes E, Nicoholson JK, Marchesi JR, Bennett PR - Sci Rep (2015)

Vaginal community state types (CST) throughout pregnancy and postpartum in a UK population.(A) Longitudinal samples were assigned to CSTs on the basis of ward linkage clustering of microbial species data (CST I, red; CST II, green; CST III, orange, CST IV, blue and CST V, yellow. CST * indicates Lactobacillus amylovorous dominated microbiome). Corresponding inverse Simpson indices are presented adjacent (white indicates low diversity, dark blue indicates high diversity). (B) Samples from CST I displayed the lowest diversity as measured by the mean inverse Simpson index whereas CST IV showed significantly higher diversity. No difference in diversity was observed between CST I and CST V. (C) CST IV was associated with increased richness as described by number of species observed. ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05. Kruskall-Wallis test (Dunn's post hoc).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4355684&req=5

f3: Vaginal community state types (CST) throughout pregnancy and postpartum in a UK population.(A) Longitudinal samples were assigned to CSTs on the basis of ward linkage clustering of microbial species data (CST I, red; CST II, green; CST III, orange, CST IV, blue and CST V, yellow. CST * indicates Lactobacillus amylovorous dominated microbiome). Corresponding inverse Simpson indices are presented adjacent (white indicates low diversity, dark blue indicates high diversity). (B) Samples from CST I displayed the lowest diversity as measured by the mean inverse Simpson index whereas CST IV showed significantly higher diversity. No difference in diversity was observed between CST I and CST V. (C) CST IV was associated with increased richness as described by number of species observed. ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05. Kruskall-Wallis test (Dunn's post hoc).
Mentions: The dynamics of vaginal CSTs during pregnancy and postpartum was assessed in longitudinally collected samples (Figure 3A, Table 1, Supplementary Tables 1–3). Pregnant vaginal communities dominated by L. crispatus (CST I) had the lowest alpha diversity and richness as well as the greatest stability during pregnancy (Figure 3B and C). In samples where L. crispatus was dominant it was the only species seen in 85% of samples, with the other 15% samples showing only very small proportions of other Lactobacillus spp. or bacteria from the class Prevotella. Low diversity and richness was also seen in CST V where L. jensenii was the dominant species in 70% of samples, with small proportions of other Lactobacillus spp. observed in the remaining 30% of samples. Slightly higher alpha diversity and richness was observed in CST II and CST III vaginal microbiomes however, the highest diversity and richness indices were reported for those women with CST IV. While only 2% (3/157) of samples collected throughout pregnancy had a microbiome assigned to CST IV, 60% (9/15) of samples collected postpartum displayed a microbiome consistent with this diverse community state despite having Lactobacillus spp. dominated vaginal microbiomes through the duration of pregnancy.

Bottom Line: While the pregnancy vaginal microbiome was characteristically dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and low alpha-diversity, unlike Northern American populations, a significant number of pregnant women this British population had a L. jensenii-dominated microbiome characterised by low alpha-diversity.L. jensenii was predominantly observed in women of Asian and Caucasian ethnicity whereas L. gasseri was absent in samples from Black women.This study reveals new insights into biogeographical and ethnic effects upon the pregnancy and postpartum vaginal microbiome and has important implications for future studies exploring relationships between the vaginal microbiome, host health and pregnancy outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Imperial College Parturition Research Group, Division of the Institute of Reproduction and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, UK.

ABSTRACT
The composition and structure of the pregnancy vaginal microbiome may influence susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Studies on the pregnant vaginal microbiome have largely been limited to Northern American populations. Using MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we characterised the vaginal microbiota of a mixed British cohort of women (n = 42) who experienced uncomplicated term delivery and who were sampled longitudinally throughout pregnancy (8-12, 20-22, 28-30 and 34-36 weeks gestation) and 6 weeks postpartum. We show that vaginal microbiome composition dramatically changes postpartum to become less Lactobacillus spp. dominant with increased alpha-diversity irrespective of the community structure during pregnancy and independent of ethnicity. While the pregnancy vaginal microbiome was characteristically dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and low alpha-diversity, unlike Northern American populations, a significant number of pregnant women this British population had a L. jensenii-dominated microbiome characterised by low alpha-diversity. L. jensenii was predominantly observed in women of Asian and Caucasian ethnicity whereas L. gasseri was absent in samples from Black women. This study reveals new insights into biogeographical and ethnic effects upon the pregnancy and postpartum vaginal microbiome and has important implications for future studies exploring relationships between the vaginal microbiome, host health and pregnancy outcomes.

No MeSH data available.