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The vaginal microbiome during pregnancy and the postpartum period in a European population.

MacIntyre DA, Chandiramani M, Lee YS, Kindinger L, Smith A, Angelopoulos N, Lehne B, Arulkumaran S, Brown R, Teoh TG, Holmes E, Nicoholson JK, Marchesi JR, Bennett PR - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: While the pregnancy vaginal microbiome was characteristically dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and low alpha-diversity, unlike Northern American populations, a significant number of pregnant women this British population had a L. jensenii-dominated microbiome characterised by low alpha-diversity.L. jensenii was predominantly observed in women of Asian and Caucasian ethnicity whereas L. gasseri was absent in samples from Black women.This study reveals new insights into biogeographical and ethnic effects upon the pregnancy and postpartum vaginal microbiome and has important implications for future studies exploring relationships between the vaginal microbiome, host health and pregnancy outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Imperial College Parturition Research Group, Division of the Institute of Reproduction and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, UK.

ABSTRACT
The composition and structure of the pregnancy vaginal microbiome may influence susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Studies on the pregnant vaginal microbiome have largely been limited to Northern American populations. Using MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we characterised the vaginal microbiota of a mixed British cohort of women (n = 42) who experienced uncomplicated term delivery and who were sampled longitudinally throughout pregnancy (8-12, 20-22, 28-30 and 34-36 weeks gestation) and 6 weeks postpartum. We show that vaginal microbiome composition dramatically changes postpartum to become less Lactobacillus spp. dominant with increased alpha-diversity irrespective of the community structure during pregnancy and independent of ethnicity. While the pregnancy vaginal microbiome was characteristically dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and low alpha-diversity, unlike Northern American populations, a significant number of pregnant women this British population had a L. jensenii-dominated microbiome characterised by low alpha-diversity. L. jensenii was predominantly observed in women of Asian and Caucasian ethnicity whereas L. gasseri was absent in samples from Black women. This study reveals new insights into biogeographical and ethnic effects upon the pregnancy and postpartum vaginal microbiome and has important implications for future studies exploring relationships between the vaginal microbiome, host health and pregnancy outcomes.

No MeSH data available.


Bacterial species composition of vaginal community state types (CST) throughout pregnancy and postpartum.(A) Hierarchical clustering analysis using centroid linkage of microbial species data shows that vaginal microbiomes from a UK cohort can be clustered into 5 major groups consistent with vaginal CSTs previously identified in non-pregnant and pregnant North American populations. Around 75% of all postpartum samples were found to cluster into CST-IV. (B) Heatmap of relative abundances of bacterial species characterising the CSTs. (C&D) CSTs I, III and IV were represented by similar proportions of White, Asian and Black ethnicities however CST II and V were almost void of representation from black women. CST * indicates Lactobacillus amylovorous dominated microbiome.
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f2: Bacterial species composition of vaginal community state types (CST) throughout pregnancy and postpartum.(A) Hierarchical clustering analysis using centroid linkage of microbial species data shows that vaginal microbiomes from a UK cohort can be clustered into 5 major groups consistent with vaginal CSTs previously identified in non-pregnant and pregnant North American populations. Around 75% of all postpartum samples were found to cluster into CST-IV. (B) Heatmap of relative abundances of bacterial species characterising the CSTs. (C&D) CSTs I, III and IV were represented by similar proportions of White, Asian and Black ethnicities however CST II and V were almost void of representation from black women. CST * indicates Lactobacillus amylovorous dominated microbiome.

Mentions: Hierarchical clustering analysis of bacterial species from the pregnant and postpartum vaginal microbiome communities revealed 5 major groups that reflect vaginal bacterial community state types (CSTs) previously defined in non-pregnant, reproductive age North American populations17 (Figure 2). This analysis was performed using all samples obtained from women recruited to our study cohort. The most commonly observed CST was CST I (L. crispatus, 40%), followed by CST III (L. iners, 27%), CST V (L. jensenii, 13%) and CST II (L. gasseri, 9%), respectively. CST IV was characterised by reduced Lactobacillus spp. and increased proportion of bacterial species associated with bacterial vaginosis including Prevotella spp., Clostridium spp., Atopobium spp., and Megasphaera spp and was observed in 8% of all samples. However CST IV was rarely observed in pregnant samples (3/142, 2%). Four samples isolated from the same woman were dominated by Lactobacillus amylovorous (3%). Further phylogenetic analysis was undertaken (data not shown) to verify that the taxonomic position of this sequence and confirm that it does cluster with L. amylovorous.


The vaginal microbiome during pregnancy and the postpartum period in a European population.

MacIntyre DA, Chandiramani M, Lee YS, Kindinger L, Smith A, Angelopoulos N, Lehne B, Arulkumaran S, Brown R, Teoh TG, Holmes E, Nicoholson JK, Marchesi JR, Bennett PR - Sci Rep (2015)

Bacterial species composition of vaginal community state types (CST) throughout pregnancy and postpartum.(A) Hierarchical clustering analysis using centroid linkage of microbial species data shows that vaginal microbiomes from a UK cohort can be clustered into 5 major groups consistent with vaginal CSTs previously identified in non-pregnant and pregnant North American populations. Around 75% of all postpartum samples were found to cluster into CST-IV. (B) Heatmap of relative abundances of bacterial species characterising the CSTs. (C&D) CSTs I, III and IV were represented by similar proportions of White, Asian and Black ethnicities however CST II and V were almost void of representation from black women. CST * indicates Lactobacillus amylovorous dominated microbiome.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4355684&req=5

f2: Bacterial species composition of vaginal community state types (CST) throughout pregnancy and postpartum.(A) Hierarchical clustering analysis using centroid linkage of microbial species data shows that vaginal microbiomes from a UK cohort can be clustered into 5 major groups consistent with vaginal CSTs previously identified in non-pregnant and pregnant North American populations. Around 75% of all postpartum samples were found to cluster into CST-IV. (B) Heatmap of relative abundances of bacterial species characterising the CSTs. (C&D) CSTs I, III and IV were represented by similar proportions of White, Asian and Black ethnicities however CST II and V were almost void of representation from black women. CST * indicates Lactobacillus amylovorous dominated microbiome.
Mentions: Hierarchical clustering analysis of bacterial species from the pregnant and postpartum vaginal microbiome communities revealed 5 major groups that reflect vaginal bacterial community state types (CSTs) previously defined in non-pregnant, reproductive age North American populations17 (Figure 2). This analysis was performed using all samples obtained from women recruited to our study cohort. The most commonly observed CST was CST I (L. crispatus, 40%), followed by CST III (L. iners, 27%), CST V (L. jensenii, 13%) and CST II (L. gasseri, 9%), respectively. CST IV was characterised by reduced Lactobacillus spp. and increased proportion of bacterial species associated with bacterial vaginosis including Prevotella spp., Clostridium spp., Atopobium spp., and Megasphaera spp and was observed in 8% of all samples. However CST IV was rarely observed in pregnant samples (3/142, 2%). Four samples isolated from the same woman were dominated by Lactobacillus amylovorous (3%). Further phylogenetic analysis was undertaken (data not shown) to verify that the taxonomic position of this sequence and confirm that it does cluster with L. amylovorous.

Bottom Line: While the pregnancy vaginal microbiome was characteristically dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and low alpha-diversity, unlike Northern American populations, a significant number of pregnant women this British population had a L. jensenii-dominated microbiome characterised by low alpha-diversity.L. jensenii was predominantly observed in women of Asian and Caucasian ethnicity whereas L. gasseri was absent in samples from Black women.This study reveals new insights into biogeographical and ethnic effects upon the pregnancy and postpartum vaginal microbiome and has important implications for future studies exploring relationships between the vaginal microbiome, host health and pregnancy outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Imperial College Parturition Research Group, Division of the Institute of Reproduction and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, UK.

ABSTRACT
The composition and structure of the pregnancy vaginal microbiome may influence susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Studies on the pregnant vaginal microbiome have largely been limited to Northern American populations. Using MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we characterised the vaginal microbiota of a mixed British cohort of women (n = 42) who experienced uncomplicated term delivery and who were sampled longitudinally throughout pregnancy (8-12, 20-22, 28-30 and 34-36 weeks gestation) and 6 weeks postpartum. We show that vaginal microbiome composition dramatically changes postpartum to become less Lactobacillus spp. dominant with increased alpha-diversity irrespective of the community structure during pregnancy and independent of ethnicity. While the pregnancy vaginal microbiome was characteristically dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and low alpha-diversity, unlike Northern American populations, a significant number of pregnant women this British population had a L. jensenii-dominated microbiome characterised by low alpha-diversity. L. jensenii was predominantly observed in women of Asian and Caucasian ethnicity whereas L. gasseri was absent in samples from Black women. This study reveals new insights into biogeographical and ethnic effects upon the pregnancy and postpartum vaginal microbiome and has important implications for future studies exploring relationships between the vaginal microbiome, host health and pregnancy outcomes.

No MeSH data available.