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Molecular-based approaches to characterize coastal microbial community and their potential relation to the trophic state of Red Sea.

Ansari MI, Harb M, Jones B, Hong PY - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Microbial source tracking revealed the presence of >1 human-associated Bacteroides spp. at some of the near-shore sampling sites and at a heavily frequented beach.Enterococci abundances obtained from next-generation sequencing did not correlate well with the cultured enterococci numbers.Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with cyanobacteria, Prochlorococcus, Ostreococcus spp. and Gramella were more prevalent in waters that were likely impacted by urban runoffs and recreational activities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Water Desalination and Reuse Center, Environmental Science and Engineering.

ABSTRACT
Molecular-based approaches were used to characterize the coastal microbiota and to elucidate the trophic state of Red Sea. Nutrient content and enterococci numbers were monitored, and used to correlate with the abundance of microbial markers. Microbial source tracking revealed the presence of >1 human-associated Bacteroides spp. at some of the near-shore sampling sites and at a heavily frequented beach. Water samples collected from the beaches had occasional exceedances in enterococci numbers, higher total organic carbon (TOC, 1.48-2.18 mg/L) and nitrogen (TN, 0.15-0.27 mg/L) than that detected in the near-shore waters. Enterococci abundances obtained from next-generation sequencing did not correlate well with the cultured enterococci numbers. The abundance of certain genera, for example Arcobacter, Pseudomonas and unclassified Campylobacterales, was observed to exhibit slight correlation with TOC and TN. Low abundance of functional genes accounting for up to 41 copies/L of each Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Campylobacter coli were detected. Arcobacter butzleri was also detected in abundance ranging from 111 to 238 copies/L. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with cyanobacteria, Prochlorococcus, Ostreococcus spp. and Gramella were more prevalent in waters that were likely impacted by urban runoffs and recreational activities. These OTUs could potentially serve as quantifiable markers indicative of the water quality.

No MeSH data available.


Sampling locations and potential sources of anthropogenic contamination.(A) Sampling points along the KAUST beach (KW1 through KW4) and Thuwal beach (TW1 through TW4), (B) Sampling points N1 through N9 that are at north of Jeddah City, and of close proximity to the urban settlement (C) Sampling points S1 through S8 which are at south of Jeddah City, and of close proximity to a treated wastewater outfall. Sampling points NS1 and NS2 denote sampling sites between north-south sampling sites. Sampling points T1 through T8 denote sampling sites along the coastline. Detailed GPS coordinates are provided as supplementary information. Figure 1 is generated by AutoCAD version 2015 on a commercial license issued to KAUST.
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f1: Sampling locations and potential sources of anthropogenic contamination.(A) Sampling points along the KAUST beach (KW1 through KW4) and Thuwal beach (TW1 through TW4), (B) Sampling points N1 through N9 that are at north of Jeddah City, and of close proximity to the urban settlement (C) Sampling points S1 through S8 which are at south of Jeddah City, and of close proximity to a treated wastewater outfall. Sampling points NS1 and NS2 denote sampling sites between north-south sampling sites. Sampling points T1 through T8 denote sampling sites along the coastline. Detailed GPS coordinates are provided as supplementary information. Figure 1 is generated by AutoCAD version 2015 on a commercial license issued to KAUST.

Mentions: Molecular-based approaches remain under-utilized in monitoring the coastal Red Sea waters for occurrence of fecal indicators, opportunistic pathogens and other potential microbial markers that may be favored or selected by anthropogenic contamination of marine waters. As such, this study utilizes molecular-based approaches to characterize the coastal microbial community, with emphasis given to detect microbial contaminants and in turn evaluate for the trophic state of these waters. To achieve this aim, samples were collected from sites that were either in close proximities to the sewage treatment plant outfall (i.e., S, NS) or to an urbanized coastal area that receives coastal runoff (i.e., N, T, NS) or to several of the recreational beach facilities (i.e., TW and KW) along the coast (Figure 1).


Molecular-based approaches to characterize coastal microbial community and their potential relation to the trophic state of Red Sea.

Ansari MI, Harb M, Jones B, Hong PY - Sci Rep (2015)

Sampling locations and potential sources of anthropogenic contamination.(A) Sampling points along the KAUST beach (KW1 through KW4) and Thuwal beach (TW1 through TW4), (B) Sampling points N1 through N9 that are at north of Jeddah City, and of close proximity to the urban settlement (C) Sampling points S1 through S8 which are at south of Jeddah City, and of close proximity to a treated wastewater outfall. Sampling points NS1 and NS2 denote sampling sites between north-south sampling sites. Sampling points T1 through T8 denote sampling sites along the coastline. Detailed GPS coordinates are provided as supplementary information. Figure 1 is generated by AutoCAD version 2015 on a commercial license issued to KAUST.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4355682&req=5

f1: Sampling locations and potential sources of anthropogenic contamination.(A) Sampling points along the KAUST beach (KW1 through KW4) and Thuwal beach (TW1 through TW4), (B) Sampling points N1 through N9 that are at north of Jeddah City, and of close proximity to the urban settlement (C) Sampling points S1 through S8 which are at south of Jeddah City, and of close proximity to a treated wastewater outfall. Sampling points NS1 and NS2 denote sampling sites between north-south sampling sites. Sampling points T1 through T8 denote sampling sites along the coastline. Detailed GPS coordinates are provided as supplementary information. Figure 1 is generated by AutoCAD version 2015 on a commercial license issued to KAUST.
Mentions: Molecular-based approaches remain under-utilized in monitoring the coastal Red Sea waters for occurrence of fecal indicators, opportunistic pathogens and other potential microbial markers that may be favored or selected by anthropogenic contamination of marine waters. As such, this study utilizes molecular-based approaches to characterize the coastal microbial community, with emphasis given to detect microbial contaminants and in turn evaluate for the trophic state of these waters. To achieve this aim, samples were collected from sites that were either in close proximities to the sewage treatment plant outfall (i.e., S, NS) or to an urbanized coastal area that receives coastal runoff (i.e., N, T, NS) or to several of the recreational beach facilities (i.e., TW and KW) along the coast (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Microbial source tracking revealed the presence of >1 human-associated Bacteroides spp. at some of the near-shore sampling sites and at a heavily frequented beach.Enterococci abundances obtained from next-generation sequencing did not correlate well with the cultured enterococci numbers.Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with cyanobacteria, Prochlorococcus, Ostreococcus spp. and Gramella were more prevalent in waters that were likely impacted by urban runoffs and recreational activities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Water Desalination and Reuse Center, Environmental Science and Engineering.

ABSTRACT
Molecular-based approaches were used to characterize the coastal microbiota and to elucidate the trophic state of Red Sea. Nutrient content and enterococci numbers were monitored, and used to correlate with the abundance of microbial markers. Microbial source tracking revealed the presence of >1 human-associated Bacteroides spp. at some of the near-shore sampling sites and at a heavily frequented beach. Water samples collected from the beaches had occasional exceedances in enterococci numbers, higher total organic carbon (TOC, 1.48-2.18 mg/L) and nitrogen (TN, 0.15-0.27 mg/L) than that detected in the near-shore waters. Enterococci abundances obtained from next-generation sequencing did not correlate well with the cultured enterococci numbers. The abundance of certain genera, for example Arcobacter, Pseudomonas and unclassified Campylobacterales, was observed to exhibit slight correlation with TOC and TN. Low abundance of functional genes accounting for up to 41 copies/L of each Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Campylobacter coli were detected. Arcobacter butzleri was also detected in abundance ranging from 111 to 238 copies/L. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with cyanobacteria, Prochlorococcus, Ostreococcus spp. and Gramella were more prevalent in waters that were likely impacted by urban runoffs and recreational activities. These OTUs could potentially serve as quantifiable markers indicative of the water quality.

No MeSH data available.