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The diagnostic and prognostic significance of monitoring blood levels of immature neutrophils in patients with systemic inflammation.

Mare TA, Treacher DF, Shankar-Hari M, Beale R, Lewis SM, Chambers DJ, Brown KA - Crit Care (2015)

Bottom Line: Blood samples were routinely taken from 136 critically ill patients within 48 hours of ICU entry and from 20 healthy control subjects.Patients who died within 1 week of blood sample provision had higher levels of myelocytes and metamyelocytes (median = 9%; P <0.05) than patients who died at 2 to 4 weeks (median =0.5%).Raised blood levels of band cells have diagnostic significance for sepsis, provided that measurements are not confined to patients with normal WBC counts, whereas an increased prevalence of myelocytes and metamyelocytes may have prognostic application.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Intensive Care Unit, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, St Thomas' Hospital, Westminster Bridge Road, London, SE1 7EH, UK. tracey.1.mare@kcl.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In this cohort study, we investigated whether monitoring blood levels of immature neutrophils (myelocytes, metamyelocytes and band cells) differentiated patients with sepsis from those with the non-infectious (N-I) systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). We also ascertained if the appearance of circulating immature neutrophils was related to adverse outcome.

Methods: Blood samples were routinely taken from 136 critically ill patients within 48 hours of ICU entry and from 20 healthy control subjects. Clinical and laboratory staff were blinded to each other's results, and patients were retrospectively characterised into those with SIRS (n = 122) and those without SIRS (n = 14). The patients with SIRS were further subdivided into categories of definite sepsis (n = 51), possible sepsis (n = 32) and N-I SIRS (n = 39). Two established criteria were used for monitoring immature white blood cells (WBCs): one where band cells >10% WBCs and the other where >10% of all forms of immature neutrophils were included but with a normal WBC count. Immature neutrophils in blood smears were identified according to nuclear morphology and cytoplasmic staining.

Results: With the first criterion, band cells were present in most patients with SIRS (mean = 66%) when compared with no SIRS (mean = 29%; P <0.01) and with healthy subjects (0%). The prevalence of band cells was higher in definite sepsis (mean = 82%) than in patients with possible sepsis (mean = 63%; P <0.05) or with N-I SIRS (mean = 39%; P <0.001), and they had a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 71% for the detection of definite sepsis. With the second criterion (that is, patients with normal WBC counts), we noted that immature neutrophils did not differentiate any of the patient groups from one another. Patients who died within 1 week of blood sample provision had higher levels of myelocytes and metamyelocytes (median = 9%; P <0.05) than patients who died at 2 to 4 weeks (median =0.5%).

Conclusions: Raised blood levels of band cells have diagnostic significance for sepsis, provided that measurements are not confined to patients with normal WBC counts, whereas an increased prevalence of myelocytes and metamyelocytes may have prognostic application.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Increased prevalence of immature neutrophils in patients with definite sepsis. The results are expressed as the mean percentage of (A) band cells and (B) myelocytes and metamyelocytes in the blood of patients with definite sepsis (n = 51), non-infectious systemic inflammatory syndrome (N-I SIRS) (n = 39), no SIRS (n = 17), healthy control subjects (n = 14) and patients with possible sepsis (n = 32). Vertical bars denote standard error of the mean. Differences between the groups were assessed by analysis of variance with the Bonferroni post-test for multiple comparisons. **P <0.01 compared with definite sepsis; *P <0.05 compared with definite sepsis.
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Fig2: Increased prevalence of immature neutrophils in patients with definite sepsis. The results are expressed as the mean percentage of (A) band cells and (B) myelocytes and metamyelocytes in the blood of patients with definite sepsis (n = 51), non-infectious systemic inflammatory syndrome (N-I SIRS) (n = 39), no SIRS (n = 17), healthy control subjects (n = 14) and patients with possible sepsis (n = 32). Vertical bars denote standard error of the mean. Differences between the groups were assessed by analysis of variance with the Bonferroni post-test for multiple comparisons. **P <0.01 compared with definite sepsis; *P <0.05 compared with definite sepsis.

Mentions: We next examined the total percentage of band cells and of myelocytes and metamyelocytes in the different groups of subjects, irrespective of the WBC counts. Figure 2A shows that there was a higher percentage of band cells in patients with definite sepsis (mean = 23 ± 16%; P <0.001) compared with those with N-I SIRS (11 ± 12%), patients without SIRS (7 ± 8%) and healthy controls (1 ± 2%). The prevalence of band cells in patients with possible sepsis was similar to that in the other patient groups. Levels of myelocytes and metamyelocytes were higher in patients with definite sepsis than in healthy controls (mean = 7 ± 14% versus 0%), but they did not differentiate any of the patient groups (Figure 2B). ROC analysis demonstrated that band cells had a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 71% for the detection of definite sepsis, with an optimum cutoff point of 8.5% (Figure 3). Of the patients with possible sepsis (mean =16% band cells), 63% were found to have elevated band cells using the 8.5% cutoff point, raising the possibility that just over half of the patients in this group had sepsis.Figure 2


The diagnostic and prognostic significance of monitoring blood levels of immature neutrophils in patients with systemic inflammation.

Mare TA, Treacher DF, Shankar-Hari M, Beale R, Lewis SM, Chambers DJ, Brown KA - Crit Care (2015)

Increased prevalence of immature neutrophils in patients with definite sepsis. The results are expressed as the mean percentage of (A) band cells and (B) myelocytes and metamyelocytes in the blood of patients with definite sepsis (n = 51), non-infectious systemic inflammatory syndrome (N-I SIRS) (n = 39), no SIRS (n = 17), healthy control subjects (n = 14) and patients with possible sepsis (n = 32). Vertical bars denote standard error of the mean. Differences between the groups were assessed by analysis of variance with the Bonferroni post-test for multiple comparisons. **P <0.01 compared with definite sepsis; *P <0.05 compared with definite sepsis.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4355545&req=5

Fig2: Increased prevalence of immature neutrophils in patients with definite sepsis. The results are expressed as the mean percentage of (A) band cells and (B) myelocytes and metamyelocytes in the blood of patients with definite sepsis (n = 51), non-infectious systemic inflammatory syndrome (N-I SIRS) (n = 39), no SIRS (n = 17), healthy control subjects (n = 14) and patients with possible sepsis (n = 32). Vertical bars denote standard error of the mean. Differences between the groups were assessed by analysis of variance with the Bonferroni post-test for multiple comparisons. **P <0.01 compared with definite sepsis; *P <0.05 compared with definite sepsis.
Mentions: We next examined the total percentage of band cells and of myelocytes and metamyelocytes in the different groups of subjects, irrespective of the WBC counts. Figure 2A shows that there was a higher percentage of band cells in patients with definite sepsis (mean = 23 ± 16%; P <0.001) compared with those with N-I SIRS (11 ± 12%), patients without SIRS (7 ± 8%) and healthy controls (1 ± 2%). The prevalence of band cells in patients with possible sepsis was similar to that in the other patient groups. Levels of myelocytes and metamyelocytes were higher in patients with definite sepsis than in healthy controls (mean = 7 ± 14% versus 0%), but they did not differentiate any of the patient groups (Figure 2B). ROC analysis demonstrated that band cells had a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 71% for the detection of definite sepsis, with an optimum cutoff point of 8.5% (Figure 3). Of the patients with possible sepsis (mean =16% band cells), 63% were found to have elevated band cells using the 8.5% cutoff point, raising the possibility that just over half of the patients in this group had sepsis.Figure 2

Bottom Line: Blood samples were routinely taken from 136 critically ill patients within 48 hours of ICU entry and from 20 healthy control subjects.Patients who died within 1 week of blood sample provision had higher levels of myelocytes and metamyelocytes (median = 9%; P <0.05) than patients who died at 2 to 4 weeks (median =0.5%).Raised blood levels of band cells have diagnostic significance for sepsis, provided that measurements are not confined to patients with normal WBC counts, whereas an increased prevalence of myelocytes and metamyelocytes may have prognostic application.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Intensive Care Unit, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, St Thomas' Hospital, Westminster Bridge Road, London, SE1 7EH, UK. tracey.1.mare@kcl.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In this cohort study, we investigated whether monitoring blood levels of immature neutrophils (myelocytes, metamyelocytes and band cells) differentiated patients with sepsis from those with the non-infectious (N-I) systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). We also ascertained if the appearance of circulating immature neutrophils was related to adverse outcome.

Methods: Blood samples were routinely taken from 136 critically ill patients within 48 hours of ICU entry and from 20 healthy control subjects. Clinical and laboratory staff were blinded to each other's results, and patients were retrospectively characterised into those with SIRS (n = 122) and those without SIRS (n = 14). The patients with SIRS were further subdivided into categories of definite sepsis (n = 51), possible sepsis (n = 32) and N-I SIRS (n = 39). Two established criteria were used for monitoring immature white blood cells (WBCs): one where band cells >10% WBCs and the other where >10% of all forms of immature neutrophils were included but with a normal WBC count. Immature neutrophils in blood smears were identified according to nuclear morphology and cytoplasmic staining.

Results: With the first criterion, band cells were present in most patients with SIRS (mean = 66%) when compared with no SIRS (mean = 29%; P <0.01) and with healthy subjects (0%). The prevalence of band cells was higher in definite sepsis (mean = 82%) than in patients with possible sepsis (mean = 63%; P <0.05) or with N-I SIRS (mean = 39%; P <0.001), and they had a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 71% for the detection of definite sepsis. With the second criterion (that is, patients with normal WBC counts), we noted that immature neutrophils did not differentiate any of the patient groups from one another. Patients who died within 1 week of blood sample provision had higher levels of myelocytes and metamyelocytes (median = 9%; P <0.05) than patients who died at 2 to 4 weeks (median =0.5%).

Conclusions: Raised blood levels of band cells have diagnostic significance for sepsis, provided that measurements are not confined to patients with normal WBC counts, whereas an increased prevalence of myelocytes and metamyelocytes may have prognostic application.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus