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Hematologic and immunological characteristics of Henoch-Schönlein purpura in rat and rabbit models induced with ovalbumin based on type III hypersensitivity.

Li Y, Feng X, Huang L, Zhu H, Xu Y, Sui X, Xu Y, Han Y, Qin C - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Animal models of HSP are needed to better understand the mechanism of HSP.Twenty four hours after antigen challenge, compared with the controls, the models showed a significantly increased white blood cell count and granulocytes count and percentage, decreased number and percentage of lymphocytes, no change in platelet concentration, significantly increased serum IL-4 and TNF-α levels, and decreased CD4(+) T cell, CD4/CD8 ratio, and C3 and C4 levels.Our studies provide two useful animal models for further investigations of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, drug screening and treatment of HSP.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Institute of Medical Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences; Key Laboratory of Human Disease Animal Models, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Peking Union Medicine College, Beijing 100021, China.

ABSTRACT
Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a common systemic vasculitis in children. Animal models of HSP are needed to better understand the mechanism of HSP. Here, we investigated hematologic and immunologic profiles in HSP rat and rabbit models. Models were established with ovalbumin (OVA) based on type III hypersensitivity. During the acute phase, the models exhibited varying degrees of cutaneous purpura, joint inflammatory response, gastrointestinal bleeding, glomerular capsule protein exudation, vascular dilatation, and increased IgA expression and immune complex deposition. Twenty four hours after antigen challenge, compared with the controls, the models showed a significantly increased white blood cell count and granulocytes count and percentage, decreased number and percentage of lymphocytes, no change in platelet concentration, significantly increased serum IL-4 and TNF-α levels, and decreased CD4(+) T cell, CD4/CD8 ratio, and C3 and C4 levels. Compared with the hematologic and immunologic profiles in pediatric HSP patients, the rat and rabbit HSP models can mimic pediatric HSP characteristics. Our studies provide two useful animal models for further investigations of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, drug screening and treatment of HSP.

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External characteristics and pathological changes in HSP rat and rabbit models (A) The skin systems of rabbit and rat in models and controls. (B) Pathological changes in HSP rabbit models: shedding of the intestinal villus epithelium, dermal hemangiectasis, hyperemia and hemorrhage, glomerular capsule cavity effusion, and protein casts in the tubular lumens; pathological changes in HSP rat models: Shedding of the intestinal villus epithelium, edema and vasodilation in the dermis, glomerular capsule cavity effusion, and protein casts in the tubular lumens. (C) IgA IC positive deposition (green arrow) in the glomerulus of the HSP rat and rabbit model, and negative in the controls. (D) Glomerular capsule cavity effusion (black arrow) and IC deposition (red arrow) in glomerular mesangial cells of the HSP rat and rabbit model. n = 10–18. Bar = 100 μm.
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f1: External characteristics and pathological changes in HSP rat and rabbit models (A) The skin systems of rabbit and rat in models and controls. (B) Pathological changes in HSP rabbit models: shedding of the intestinal villus epithelium, dermal hemangiectasis, hyperemia and hemorrhage, glomerular capsule cavity effusion, and protein casts in the tubular lumens; pathological changes in HSP rat models: Shedding of the intestinal villus epithelium, edema and vasodilation in the dermis, glomerular capsule cavity effusion, and protein casts in the tubular lumens. (C) IgA IC positive deposition (green arrow) in the glomerulus of the HSP rat and rabbit model, and negative in the controls. (D) Glomerular capsule cavity effusion (black arrow) and IC deposition (red arrow) in glomerular mesangial cells of the HSP rat and rabbit model. n = 10–18. Bar = 100 μm.

Mentions: Six to eight hours after antigen challenge, the skin of HSP rats and rabbits developed hemorrhagic spots; 14–18 h after antigen challenge, the number and size of the hemorrhagic spots gradually increased. 40% (4/10) of the HSP rats developed isolated hemorrhagic spots with a generalized distribution (1–2 mm in diameter), and 85% of HSP rabbits (24/28) developed hemorrhagic spots (1 cm in diameter) surrounded by redness and swelling in a localized distribution. Some hemorrhagic spots were fused and/or had exudates. 48 h after antigen challenge, secondary changes in the hemorrhagic spots in both HSP rats and rabbits included the development of scabs and necrosis. Symptoms showed gradual improvement and marked improvement two and three weeks after antigen challenge, respectively (Fig. 1A).


Hematologic and immunological characteristics of Henoch-Schönlein purpura in rat and rabbit models induced with ovalbumin based on type III hypersensitivity.

Li Y, Feng X, Huang L, Zhu H, Xu Y, Sui X, Xu Y, Han Y, Qin C - Sci Rep (2015)

External characteristics and pathological changes in HSP rat and rabbit models (A) The skin systems of rabbit and rat in models and controls. (B) Pathological changes in HSP rabbit models: shedding of the intestinal villus epithelium, dermal hemangiectasis, hyperemia and hemorrhage, glomerular capsule cavity effusion, and protein casts in the tubular lumens; pathological changes in HSP rat models: Shedding of the intestinal villus epithelium, edema and vasodilation in the dermis, glomerular capsule cavity effusion, and protein casts in the tubular lumens. (C) IgA IC positive deposition (green arrow) in the glomerulus of the HSP rat and rabbit model, and negative in the controls. (D) Glomerular capsule cavity effusion (black arrow) and IC deposition (red arrow) in glomerular mesangial cells of the HSP rat and rabbit model. n = 10–18. Bar = 100 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352856&req=5

f1: External characteristics and pathological changes in HSP rat and rabbit models (A) The skin systems of rabbit and rat in models and controls. (B) Pathological changes in HSP rabbit models: shedding of the intestinal villus epithelium, dermal hemangiectasis, hyperemia and hemorrhage, glomerular capsule cavity effusion, and protein casts in the tubular lumens; pathological changes in HSP rat models: Shedding of the intestinal villus epithelium, edema and vasodilation in the dermis, glomerular capsule cavity effusion, and protein casts in the tubular lumens. (C) IgA IC positive deposition (green arrow) in the glomerulus of the HSP rat and rabbit model, and negative in the controls. (D) Glomerular capsule cavity effusion (black arrow) and IC deposition (red arrow) in glomerular mesangial cells of the HSP rat and rabbit model. n = 10–18. Bar = 100 μm.
Mentions: Six to eight hours after antigen challenge, the skin of HSP rats and rabbits developed hemorrhagic spots; 14–18 h after antigen challenge, the number and size of the hemorrhagic spots gradually increased. 40% (4/10) of the HSP rats developed isolated hemorrhagic spots with a generalized distribution (1–2 mm in diameter), and 85% of HSP rabbits (24/28) developed hemorrhagic spots (1 cm in diameter) surrounded by redness and swelling in a localized distribution. Some hemorrhagic spots were fused and/or had exudates. 48 h after antigen challenge, secondary changes in the hemorrhagic spots in both HSP rats and rabbits included the development of scabs and necrosis. Symptoms showed gradual improvement and marked improvement two and three weeks after antigen challenge, respectively (Fig. 1A).

Bottom Line: Animal models of HSP are needed to better understand the mechanism of HSP.Twenty four hours after antigen challenge, compared with the controls, the models showed a significantly increased white blood cell count and granulocytes count and percentage, decreased number and percentage of lymphocytes, no change in platelet concentration, significantly increased serum IL-4 and TNF-α levels, and decreased CD4(+) T cell, CD4/CD8 ratio, and C3 and C4 levels.Our studies provide two useful animal models for further investigations of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, drug screening and treatment of HSP.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Institute of Medical Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences; Key Laboratory of Human Disease Animal Models, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Peking Union Medicine College, Beijing 100021, China.

ABSTRACT
Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a common systemic vasculitis in children. Animal models of HSP are needed to better understand the mechanism of HSP. Here, we investigated hematologic and immunologic profiles in HSP rat and rabbit models. Models were established with ovalbumin (OVA) based on type III hypersensitivity. During the acute phase, the models exhibited varying degrees of cutaneous purpura, joint inflammatory response, gastrointestinal bleeding, glomerular capsule protein exudation, vascular dilatation, and increased IgA expression and immune complex deposition. Twenty four hours after antigen challenge, compared with the controls, the models showed a significantly increased white blood cell count and granulocytes count and percentage, decreased number and percentage of lymphocytes, no change in platelet concentration, significantly increased serum IL-4 and TNF-α levels, and decreased CD4(+) T cell, CD4/CD8 ratio, and C3 and C4 levels. Compared with the hematologic and immunologic profiles in pediatric HSP patients, the rat and rabbit HSP models can mimic pediatric HSP characteristics. Our studies provide two useful animal models for further investigations of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, drug screening and treatment of HSP.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus