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Bioavailability of dietary polyphenols and gut microbiota metabolism: antimicrobial properties.

Marín L, Miguélez EM, Villar CJ, Lombó F - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: Most of them occur as glycosylated derivatives in plants and foods.During this transit along diverse tissues and organs, they are able to carry out strong antiviral, antibacterial, and antiparasitic activities.This paper revises and discusses these antimicrobial activities of dietary polyphenols and their relevance for human health, shedding light on the importance of polyphenols structure recognition by specific enzymes produced by intestinal microbial taxa.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Unit "Biotechnology and Experimental Therapy Based in Nutraceuticals-BITTEN", Instituto Universitario de Oncología del Principado de Asturias (IUOPA), Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Polyphenolic compounds are plant nutraceuticals showing a huge structural diversity, including chlorogenic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and flavonoids (flavonols, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, isoflavones, and flavones). Most of them occur as glycosylated derivatives in plants and foods. In order to become bioactive at human body, these polyphenols must undergo diverse intestinal transformations, due to the action of digestive enzymes, but also by the action of microbiota metabolism. After elimination of sugar tailoring (generating the corresponding aglycons) and diverse hydroxyl moieties, as well as further backbone reorganizations, the final absorbed compounds enter the portal vein circulation towards liver (where other enzymatic transformations take place) and from there to other organs, including behind the digestive tract or via blood towards urine excretion. During this transit along diverse tissues and organs, they are able to carry out strong antiviral, antibacterial, and antiparasitic activities. This paper revises and discusses these antimicrobial activities of dietary polyphenols and their relevance for human health, shedding light on the importance of polyphenols structure recognition by specific enzymes produced by intestinal microbial taxa.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Biosynthetic steps for generation of flavonoid subfamilies. Naringenin structure shows atom numbering and apigenin structure shows rings denomination.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig2: Biosynthetic steps for generation of flavonoid subfamilies. Naringenin structure shows atom numbering and apigenin structure shows rings denomination.

Mentions: In flavonoid biosynthesis, one molecule of p-coumaroyl-CoA and three molecules of malonyl-CoA are used by the chalcone synthase (CHS) in order to generate a bicyclic chalcone as naringenin chalcone (Figure 1) [4]. Chalcones are substrates for chalcone isomerase (CHI), which carries out the B-ring closure at these compounds, rendering flavanones (as naringenin from citrus fruits) (Figure 2). All flavonoid subfamilies derive from these 15C flavanones (Figure 2 shows the atom numbering and ring denomination). Other phenylpropanoid enzymes will generate diverse final products as shown in Figure 2 [4]. Flavone synthase (FNS) will generate flavones (as apigenin from celery). Isoflavone synthase (IFS) will generate isoflavones (as genistein from soy). Flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H) will generate dihydroflavonols (as aromadendrin from pine trees). Flavonol synthase (FLS) will generate flavonols (as quercetin from onion or kaempferol from capers). Dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) and anthocyanin synthase (ANS) will generate anthocyanidins (as pelargonidin from diverse red flowers). Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) will generate flavan-3-ols (as epicatechin from cocoa).


Bioavailability of dietary polyphenols and gut microbiota metabolism: antimicrobial properties.

Marín L, Miguélez EM, Villar CJ, Lombó F - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Biosynthetic steps for generation of flavonoid subfamilies. Naringenin structure shows atom numbering and apigenin structure shows rings denomination.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352739&req=5

fig2: Biosynthetic steps for generation of flavonoid subfamilies. Naringenin structure shows atom numbering and apigenin structure shows rings denomination.
Mentions: In flavonoid biosynthesis, one molecule of p-coumaroyl-CoA and three molecules of malonyl-CoA are used by the chalcone synthase (CHS) in order to generate a bicyclic chalcone as naringenin chalcone (Figure 1) [4]. Chalcones are substrates for chalcone isomerase (CHI), which carries out the B-ring closure at these compounds, rendering flavanones (as naringenin from citrus fruits) (Figure 2). All flavonoid subfamilies derive from these 15C flavanones (Figure 2 shows the atom numbering and ring denomination). Other phenylpropanoid enzymes will generate diverse final products as shown in Figure 2 [4]. Flavone synthase (FNS) will generate flavones (as apigenin from celery). Isoflavone synthase (IFS) will generate isoflavones (as genistein from soy). Flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H) will generate dihydroflavonols (as aromadendrin from pine trees). Flavonol synthase (FLS) will generate flavonols (as quercetin from onion or kaempferol from capers). Dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) and anthocyanin synthase (ANS) will generate anthocyanidins (as pelargonidin from diverse red flowers). Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) will generate flavan-3-ols (as epicatechin from cocoa).

Bottom Line: Most of them occur as glycosylated derivatives in plants and foods.During this transit along diverse tissues and organs, they are able to carry out strong antiviral, antibacterial, and antiparasitic activities.This paper revises and discusses these antimicrobial activities of dietary polyphenols and their relevance for human health, shedding light on the importance of polyphenols structure recognition by specific enzymes produced by intestinal microbial taxa.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Unit "Biotechnology and Experimental Therapy Based in Nutraceuticals-BITTEN", Instituto Universitario de Oncología del Principado de Asturias (IUOPA), Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Polyphenolic compounds are plant nutraceuticals showing a huge structural diversity, including chlorogenic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and flavonoids (flavonols, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, isoflavones, and flavones). Most of them occur as glycosylated derivatives in plants and foods. In order to become bioactive at human body, these polyphenols must undergo diverse intestinal transformations, due to the action of digestive enzymes, but also by the action of microbiota metabolism. After elimination of sugar tailoring (generating the corresponding aglycons) and diverse hydroxyl moieties, as well as further backbone reorganizations, the final absorbed compounds enter the portal vein circulation towards liver (where other enzymatic transformations take place) and from there to other organs, including behind the digestive tract or via blood towards urine excretion. During this transit along diverse tissues and organs, they are able to carry out strong antiviral, antibacterial, and antiparasitic activities. This paper revises and discusses these antimicrobial activities of dietary polyphenols and their relevance for human health, shedding light on the importance of polyphenols structure recognition by specific enzymes produced by intestinal microbial taxa.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus