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Reprogramming for cardiac regeneration.

Raynaud CM, Ahmad FS, Allouba M, Abou-Saleh H, Lui KO, Yacoub M - Glob Cardiol Sci Pract (2014)

Bottom Line: Treatment of cardiovascular diseases remains challenging considering the limited regeneration capacity of the heart muscle.Developments of reprogramming strategies to create in vitro and in vivo cardiomyocytes have been the focus point of a considerable amount of research in the past decades.The choice of cells to employ, the state-of-the-art methods for different reprogramming strategies, and their promises and future challenges before clinical entry, are all discussed here.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Qatar Cardiovascular Research Center, Qatar Foundation-Education City, Doha, Qatar.

ABSTRACT
Treatment of cardiovascular diseases remains challenging considering the limited regeneration capacity of the heart muscle. Developments of reprogramming strategies to create in vitro and in vivo cardiomyocytes have been the focus point of a considerable amount of research in the past decades. The choice of cells to employ, the state-of-the-art methods for different reprogramming strategies, and their promises and future challenges before clinical entry, are all discussed here.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Generation of functional cardiomyocytes by direct and indirect reprogramming of fibroblasts. Fibroblasts derived from skin biopsy from a patient. These cells were then reprogrammed using OSKM factors towards induced pluripotent stem cells. These are then directed to differentiate towards CMs. Fibroblasts can also be directly reprogrammed towards CMs.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig6: Generation of functional cardiomyocytes by direct and indirect reprogramming of fibroblasts. Fibroblasts derived from skin biopsy from a patient. These cells were then reprogrammed using OSKM factors towards induced pluripotent stem cells. These are then directed to differentiate towards CMs. Fibroblasts can also be directly reprogrammed towards CMs.

Mentions: Both types of PSCs (ESCs and iPSCs), cultured or induced, prior to CMs differentiation, trigger the risk of teratoma formation, inappropriate tissue engraftment and immune rejection when later implanted into the patient. This issue remains one of the major drawbacks of these approaches in clinical trials. Even if new strategies and drugs are tested specifically to eliminate undifferentiated cells and therefore their tumorigenic risk, the path remains long before a potential clinical application.133 Therefore, development of strategies avoiding the pluripotent stage raised great enthusiasm. The publication of direct genetic reprogramming approaches (known as “trans-differentiation” or “direct conversion”) brought exciting perspectives for cardiac cellular regeneration. This genetic modification allows the direct conversion of a terminally differentiated cell type into so-called induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) (Figure 6).


Reprogramming for cardiac regeneration.

Raynaud CM, Ahmad FS, Allouba M, Abou-Saleh H, Lui KO, Yacoub M - Glob Cardiol Sci Pract (2014)

Generation of functional cardiomyocytes by direct and indirect reprogramming of fibroblasts. Fibroblasts derived from skin biopsy from a patient. These cells were then reprogrammed using OSKM factors towards induced pluripotent stem cells. These are then directed to differentiate towards CMs. Fibroblasts can also be directly reprogrammed towards CMs.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352683&req=5

fig6: Generation of functional cardiomyocytes by direct and indirect reprogramming of fibroblasts. Fibroblasts derived from skin biopsy from a patient. These cells were then reprogrammed using OSKM factors towards induced pluripotent stem cells. These are then directed to differentiate towards CMs. Fibroblasts can also be directly reprogrammed towards CMs.
Mentions: Both types of PSCs (ESCs and iPSCs), cultured or induced, prior to CMs differentiation, trigger the risk of teratoma formation, inappropriate tissue engraftment and immune rejection when later implanted into the patient. This issue remains one of the major drawbacks of these approaches in clinical trials. Even if new strategies and drugs are tested specifically to eliminate undifferentiated cells and therefore their tumorigenic risk, the path remains long before a potential clinical application.133 Therefore, development of strategies avoiding the pluripotent stage raised great enthusiasm. The publication of direct genetic reprogramming approaches (known as “trans-differentiation” or “direct conversion”) brought exciting perspectives for cardiac cellular regeneration. This genetic modification allows the direct conversion of a terminally differentiated cell type into so-called induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) (Figure 6).

Bottom Line: Treatment of cardiovascular diseases remains challenging considering the limited regeneration capacity of the heart muscle.Developments of reprogramming strategies to create in vitro and in vivo cardiomyocytes have been the focus point of a considerable amount of research in the past decades.The choice of cells to employ, the state-of-the-art methods for different reprogramming strategies, and their promises and future challenges before clinical entry, are all discussed here.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Qatar Cardiovascular Research Center, Qatar Foundation-Education City, Doha, Qatar.

ABSTRACT
Treatment of cardiovascular diseases remains challenging considering the limited regeneration capacity of the heart muscle. Developments of reprogramming strategies to create in vitro and in vivo cardiomyocytes have been the focus point of a considerable amount of research in the past decades. The choice of cells to employ, the state-of-the-art methods for different reprogramming strategies, and their promises and future challenges before clinical entry, are all discussed here.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus