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Reprogramming for cardiac regeneration.

Raynaud CM, Ahmad FS, Allouba M, Abou-Saleh H, Lui KO, Yacoub M - Glob Cardiol Sci Pract (2014)

Bottom Line: Treatment of cardiovascular diseases remains challenging considering the limited regeneration capacity of the heart muscle.Developments of reprogramming strategies to create in vitro and in vivo cardiomyocytes have been the focus point of a considerable amount of research in the past decades.The choice of cells to employ, the state-of-the-art methods for different reprogramming strategies, and their promises and future challenges before clinical entry, are all discussed here.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Qatar Cardiovascular Research Center, Qatar Foundation-Education City, Doha, Qatar.

ABSTRACT
Treatment of cardiovascular diseases remains challenging considering the limited regeneration capacity of the heart muscle. Developments of reprogramming strategies to create in vitro and in vivo cardiomyocytes have been the focus point of a considerable amount of research in the past decades. The choice of cells to employ, the state-of-the-art methods for different reprogramming strategies, and their promises and future challenges before clinical entry, are all discussed here.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Different cells' “potency”. The “potency” of a cell is defined by the number of cell types it has the capacity to differentiate into. The fertilized egg is “totipotent”, cells having the potential to develop into an entire organism and therefore possesses the totality of potentials. This totipotent cell will divide in human for 4 days retaining this full capacity until a blastocyst develops, where these cells acquire some specialization. The cells from the inner cell mass cannot develop anymore into an entire organism, as they are unable to form the placenta but can still differentiate into all cell types within the organism. They are therefore qualified as “pluripotent”. Pluripotent cells will further multiply and acquire more specialization. The resulting “multipotent” cells retain the capacity to differentiate into various cell types. They are already specialized into ectoderm, endoderm or mesoderm. Finally, cells are considered “oligopotent” when they can only differentiate into very limited cell types (adapted from Ref.180).
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fig1: Different cells' “potency”. The “potency” of a cell is defined by the number of cell types it has the capacity to differentiate into. The fertilized egg is “totipotent”, cells having the potential to develop into an entire organism and therefore possesses the totality of potentials. This totipotent cell will divide in human for 4 days retaining this full capacity until a blastocyst develops, where these cells acquire some specialization. The cells from the inner cell mass cannot develop anymore into an entire organism, as they are unable to form the placenta but can still differentiate into all cell types within the organism. They are therefore qualified as “pluripotent”. Pluripotent cells will further multiply and acquire more specialization. The resulting “multipotent” cells retain the capacity to differentiate into various cell types. They are already specialized into ectoderm, endoderm or mesoderm. Finally, cells are considered “oligopotent” when they can only differentiate into very limited cell types (adapted from Ref.180).

Mentions: Stem cells are unspecialized cells with potentially unlimited proliferation attributes (self-renewal) and the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types.6 These cells, though, can be further classified into subtypes of stem cells according to how many specialized cell types they can differentiate into, often called their “potency” or “differentiation potential” (Figure 1). From “totipotent” in the fertilized egg, cells specialize along embryo development and only “multipotent”, “oligopotent” and “unipotent” can be found in adults. These adult stem cells, however, all maintain the property of self-renewal and a certain differentiation capacity. The feasibility of cell therapy has been investigated in several of these adult stem cell populations.7–11 First reported in 1999,12 adult stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), for which the possibility of autologous stem cell isolation has long been known, were shown to be reprogrammable into cardiomyocytes (CMs). Since that time, colossal efforts have been made to employ MSCs (in particular BM-MSCs) in heart failure clinical application, and there was a focus on improving in vitro or in vivo differentiation of MSCs into CMs. Thus, the use of bone marrow cells (BMCs) for treating myocardial infarction and heart failure have been reported in a large number of clinical trials.13 However, conflicting results, limited in vitro and in vivo reprogramming of human MSCs into CMs and the limited clinical benefits obtained, have led to research on other adult stem cell types such as cardiac stem cells.14–18


Reprogramming for cardiac regeneration.

Raynaud CM, Ahmad FS, Allouba M, Abou-Saleh H, Lui KO, Yacoub M - Glob Cardiol Sci Pract (2014)

Different cells' “potency”. The “potency” of a cell is defined by the number of cell types it has the capacity to differentiate into. The fertilized egg is “totipotent”, cells having the potential to develop into an entire organism and therefore possesses the totality of potentials. This totipotent cell will divide in human for 4 days retaining this full capacity until a blastocyst develops, where these cells acquire some specialization. The cells from the inner cell mass cannot develop anymore into an entire organism, as they are unable to form the placenta but can still differentiate into all cell types within the organism. They are therefore qualified as “pluripotent”. Pluripotent cells will further multiply and acquire more specialization. The resulting “multipotent” cells retain the capacity to differentiate into various cell types. They are already specialized into ectoderm, endoderm or mesoderm. Finally, cells are considered “oligopotent” when they can only differentiate into very limited cell types (adapted from Ref.180).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352683&req=5

fig1: Different cells' “potency”. The “potency” of a cell is defined by the number of cell types it has the capacity to differentiate into. The fertilized egg is “totipotent”, cells having the potential to develop into an entire organism and therefore possesses the totality of potentials. This totipotent cell will divide in human for 4 days retaining this full capacity until a blastocyst develops, where these cells acquire some specialization. The cells from the inner cell mass cannot develop anymore into an entire organism, as they are unable to form the placenta but can still differentiate into all cell types within the organism. They are therefore qualified as “pluripotent”. Pluripotent cells will further multiply and acquire more specialization. The resulting “multipotent” cells retain the capacity to differentiate into various cell types. They are already specialized into ectoderm, endoderm or mesoderm. Finally, cells are considered “oligopotent” when they can only differentiate into very limited cell types (adapted from Ref.180).
Mentions: Stem cells are unspecialized cells with potentially unlimited proliferation attributes (self-renewal) and the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types.6 These cells, though, can be further classified into subtypes of stem cells according to how many specialized cell types they can differentiate into, often called their “potency” or “differentiation potential” (Figure 1). From “totipotent” in the fertilized egg, cells specialize along embryo development and only “multipotent”, “oligopotent” and “unipotent” can be found in adults. These adult stem cells, however, all maintain the property of self-renewal and a certain differentiation capacity. The feasibility of cell therapy has been investigated in several of these adult stem cell populations.7–11 First reported in 1999,12 adult stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), for which the possibility of autologous stem cell isolation has long been known, were shown to be reprogrammable into cardiomyocytes (CMs). Since that time, colossal efforts have been made to employ MSCs (in particular BM-MSCs) in heart failure clinical application, and there was a focus on improving in vitro or in vivo differentiation of MSCs into CMs. Thus, the use of bone marrow cells (BMCs) for treating myocardial infarction and heart failure have been reported in a large number of clinical trials.13 However, conflicting results, limited in vitro and in vivo reprogramming of human MSCs into CMs and the limited clinical benefits obtained, have led to research on other adult stem cell types such as cardiac stem cells.14–18

Bottom Line: Treatment of cardiovascular diseases remains challenging considering the limited regeneration capacity of the heart muscle.Developments of reprogramming strategies to create in vitro and in vivo cardiomyocytes have been the focus point of a considerable amount of research in the past decades.The choice of cells to employ, the state-of-the-art methods for different reprogramming strategies, and their promises and future challenges before clinical entry, are all discussed here.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Qatar Cardiovascular Research Center, Qatar Foundation-Education City, Doha, Qatar.

ABSTRACT
Treatment of cardiovascular diseases remains challenging considering the limited regeneration capacity of the heart muscle. Developments of reprogramming strategies to create in vitro and in vivo cardiomyocytes have been the focus point of a considerable amount of research in the past decades. The choice of cells to employ, the state-of-the-art methods for different reprogramming strategies, and their promises and future challenges before clinical entry, are all discussed here.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus