Limits...
Osteocyte shape and mechanical loading.

van Oers RF, Wang H, Bacabac RG - Curr Osteoporos Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: In vitro, round osteocytes are more mechanosensitive than flat osteocytes.Altered lacunar morphology has been associated with bone pathology.It is important to know whether osteocyte shape is part of the etiology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral Cell Biology, ACTA - University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, rfmvoers@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
There is considerable variation in the shape of osteocyte lacunae, which is likely to influence the function of osteocytes as the professional mechanosensors of bone. In this review, we first discussed how mechanical loading could affect the shape of osteocyte lacunae. Recent studies show that osteocyte lacunae are aligned to collagen. Since collagen fiber orientation is affected by loading mode, this alignment may help to understand how mechanical loading shapes the osteocyte lacuna. Secondly, we discussed how the shape of osteocytes could influence their mechanosensation. In vitro, round osteocytes are more mechanosensitive than flat osteocytes. Altered lacunar morphology has been associated with bone pathology. It is important to know whether osteocyte shape is part of the etiology.

No MeSH data available.


Polarized light microscopy of an osteon in a longitudinal section of cow femur. Bright areas indicate that collagen runs parallel to the plane of section. Note that osteocyte lacunae appear longer in the bright areas near the Haversian canal (hc) compared to the dark outer areas of the osteon. Scale bar = 50 μm
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352610&req=5

Fig1: Polarized light microscopy of an osteon in a longitudinal section of cow femur. Bright areas indicate that collagen runs parallel to the plane of section. Note that osteocyte lacunae appear longer in the bright areas near the Haversian canal (hc) compared to the dark outer areas of the osteon. Scale bar = 50 μm

Mentions: The link with collagen orientation provides a way to understand how mechanical loading affects osteocyte shape. Bone consists primarily of organic collagen and inorganic hydroxyapatite. It is the collagen that gives the bone its tensile strength, like the steel wires in reinforced concrete. It makes the bone resilient to fracture [31] and is crucial for the connection of ligaments and tendons to the bone [32]. Bromage et al. [33] compared transverse sections of different bones with polarized light microscopy. Bone sections appear bright in polarized light microscopy when collagen fibers are parallel to the section plane and dark when they are perpendicular to the section plane (Fig. 1). Bones loaded primarily in tension, such as the gibbon ulna, appeared dark, suggesting that collagen runs longitudinal (perpendicular to a transverse section = along the long axis of the bone). Bones that experience more compression appeared much brighter, indicating that collagen runs more transverse to the long axis of the bone. The association of longitudinal collagen with tension and transverse collagen with compression has also been observed in sheep heel bones, which experience tension on one side and compression on the other side [34, 35•].Fig. 1


Osteocyte shape and mechanical loading.

van Oers RF, Wang H, Bacabac RG - Curr Osteoporos Rep (2015)

Polarized light microscopy of an osteon in a longitudinal section of cow femur. Bright areas indicate that collagen runs parallel to the plane of section. Note that osteocyte lacunae appear longer in the bright areas near the Haversian canal (hc) compared to the dark outer areas of the osteon. Scale bar = 50 μm
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352610&req=5

Fig1: Polarized light microscopy of an osteon in a longitudinal section of cow femur. Bright areas indicate that collagen runs parallel to the plane of section. Note that osteocyte lacunae appear longer in the bright areas near the Haversian canal (hc) compared to the dark outer areas of the osteon. Scale bar = 50 μm
Mentions: The link with collagen orientation provides a way to understand how mechanical loading affects osteocyte shape. Bone consists primarily of organic collagen and inorganic hydroxyapatite. It is the collagen that gives the bone its tensile strength, like the steel wires in reinforced concrete. It makes the bone resilient to fracture [31] and is crucial for the connection of ligaments and tendons to the bone [32]. Bromage et al. [33] compared transverse sections of different bones with polarized light microscopy. Bone sections appear bright in polarized light microscopy when collagen fibers are parallel to the section plane and dark when they are perpendicular to the section plane (Fig. 1). Bones loaded primarily in tension, such as the gibbon ulna, appeared dark, suggesting that collagen runs longitudinal (perpendicular to a transverse section = along the long axis of the bone). Bones that experience more compression appeared much brighter, indicating that collagen runs more transverse to the long axis of the bone. The association of longitudinal collagen with tension and transverse collagen with compression has also been observed in sheep heel bones, which experience tension on one side and compression on the other side [34, 35•].Fig. 1

Bottom Line: In vitro, round osteocytes are more mechanosensitive than flat osteocytes.Altered lacunar morphology has been associated with bone pathology.It is important to know whether osteocyte shape is part of the etiology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral Cell Biology, ACTA - University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, rfmvoers@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
There is considerable variation in the shape of osteocyte lacunae, which is likely to influence the function of osteocytes as the professional mechanosensors of bone. In this review, we first discussed how mechanical loading could affect the shape of osteocyte lacunae. Recent studies show that osteocyte lacunae are aligned to collagen. Since collagen fiber orientation is affected by loading mode, this alignment may help to understand how mechanical loading shapes the osteocyte lacuna. Secondly, we discussed how the shape of osteocytes could influence their mechanosensation. In vitro, round osteocytes are more mechanosensitive than flat osteocytes. Altered lacunar morphology has been associated with bone pathology. It is important to know whether osteocyte shape is part of the etiology.

No MeSH data available.