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A meta-analysis of the proportion of animal Salmonella isolates resistant to drugs used against human salmonellosis in Ethiopia.

Tadesse G - BMC Infect. Dis. (2015)

Bottom Line: Pooled proportions were estimated by the DerSimonian and Laird random effects model.The pooled estimates of co-trimoxazole resistant isolates in true ruminants (4.35%) and pigs (1.12%) were not significantly different (p > 0.05).Intervention measures should be taken to ensure the prudent use of antimicrobials and curb the spread of high risk strains across the country.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 34, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. getadesse1@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence and spread of drug resistant Salmonellae of both human and animal origins are global concerns and worrisome in countries where the risk of infection is high and treatment options are limited. The objective of this study was to estimate the proportions of animal isolates resistant to antimicrobials used against human salmonellosis in Ethiopia.

Methods: Published studies on the antimicrobial resistance features of Salmonellae isolated from food animals of Ethiopia were searched in Medline, Google Scholar and the lists of references of articles. Eligible studies were selected by using inclusion and exclusion criteria and data were extracted. The extracted data included the host species, the numbers of isolates and the numbers of ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin resistant isolates. The risks of bias were assessed and the percentages of the variations of the estimates attributable to heterogeneities were quantified. Pooled proportions were estimated by the DerSimonian and Laird random effects model.

Results: Five hundred and fifty four Salmonellae isolated from cattle, camels, sheep, goats and pigs were tested with a variety of antimicrobials. The percentages of the variations attributable to heterogeneities were low for chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone (I(2) = 0) and high for ampicillin, co-trimoxazole and ciprofloxacin resistance estimates (I(2) > 75%). The pooled estimate of ampicillin resistant isolates was higher in slaughtered ruminants (17.28%) than in pigs (3.95%), (p < 0.001). The pooled estimates of co-trimoxazole resistant isolates in true ruminants (4.35%) and pigs (1.12%) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The overall pooled estimates of chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone resistant isolates were 2.24% and 1.25%, respectively. Seven serotypes have been reported to be resistant to antimicrobials uncommonly used in veterinary clinical practice in Ethiopia.

Conclusions: Among Salmonellae of farm animals, there exist strains that are resistant to drugs used in the therapeutic management of human salmonellosis in Ethiopia. Intervention measures should be taken to ensure the prudent use of antimicrobials and curb the spread of high risk strains across the country.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Galbraith plots of the logit event estimates (lp) of ampicillin (A), co-trimoxazole (B), chloramphenicol (C), ceftriaxone (D), ciprofloxacin (E) and multi-drug (F) resistant isolates.
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Fig3: Galbraith plots of the logit event estimates (lp) of ampicillin (A), co-trimoxazole (B), chloramphenicol (C), ceftriaxone (D), ciprofloxacin (E) and multi-drug (F) resistant isolates.

Mentions: The Galbraith plots displayed heterogeneities of the proportions of ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin and multi-drug resistant estimates (Figure 3). The percentages of the variations attributable to heterogeneities were substantially high (I2 > 75%) for ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin and multi-drug resistant isolates, but low (I2 < 25%) for chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone resistant isolates. Omitting camel [18] and pig isolates [12,13] that highly contributed to the heterogeneities of co-trimoxazole and ciprofloxacin resistance estimates, respectively, yielded low I2 values (I2 < 25%). However, omitting dairy cattle isolates [22] that highly contributed to the heterogeneity of ampicillin resistance estimates did not substantially shrink the inverse variance index (I2 > 75%). In a further subgroup analyses, the I2 values of the proportions of ampicillin resistant isolates in slaughtered ruminants and ciprofloxacin resistant isolates in pigs were substantially high (I2 > 75%). The heterogeneity analyses of the estimates of ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin and multi-drug resistant isolates indicate substantial variations within and/or between host species. These variations could have been due to differences in the magnitude of exposure of the hosts to a drug or drugs or a higher occurrence of specific drug resistant serovars regardless of exposure to drugs. In contrast, the lower between-study variations in the proportions of chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone resistant isolates (<25%) reflect the similarities of the occurrence of such isolates across different host species.Figure 3


A meta-analysis of the proportion of animal Salmonella isolates resistant to drugs used against human salmonellosis in Ethiopia.

Tadesse G - BMC Infect. Dis. (2015)

Galbraith plots of the logit event estimates (lp) of ampicillin (A), co-trimoxazole (B), chloramphenicol (C), ceftriaxone (D), ciprofloxacin (E) and multi-drug (F) resistant isolates.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352553&req=5

Fig3: Galbraith plots of the logit event estimates (lp) of ampicillin (A), co-trimoxazole (B), chloramphenicol (C), ceftriaxone (D), ciprofloxacin (E) and multi-drug (F) resistant isolates.
Mentions: The Galbraith plots displayed heterogeneities of the proportions of ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin and multi-drug resistant estimates (Figure 3). The percentages of the variations attributable to heterogeneities were substantially high (I2 > 75%) for ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin and multi-drug resistant isolates, but low (I2 < 25%) for chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone resistant isolates. Omitting camel [18] and pig isolates [12,13] that highly contributed to the heterogeneities of co-trimoxazole and ciprofloxacin resistance estimates, respectively, yielded low I2 values (I2 < 25%). However, omitting dairy cattle isolates [22] that highly contributed to the heterogeneity of ampicillin resistance estimates did not substantially shrink the inverse variance index (I2 > 75%). In a further subgroup analyses, the I2 values of the proportions of ampicillin resistant isolates in slaughtered ruminants and ciprofloxacin resistant isolates in pigs were substantially high (I2 > 75%). The heterogeneity analyses of the estimates of ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin and multi-drug resistant isolates indicate substantial variations within and/or between host species. These variations could have been due to differences in the magnitude of exposure of the hosts to a drug or drugs or a higher occurrence of specific drug resistant serovars regardless of exposure to drugs. In contrast, the lower between-study variations in the proportions of chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone resistant isolates (<25%) reflect the similarities of the occurrence of such isolates across different host species.Figure 3

Bottom Line: Pooled proportions were estimated by the DerSimonian and Laird random effects model.The pooled estimates of co-trimoxazole resistant isolates in true ruminants (4.35%) and pigs (1.12%) were not significantly different (p > 0.05).Intervention measures should be taken to ensure the prudent use of antimicrobials and curb the spread of high risk strains across the country.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 34, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. getadesse1@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence and spread of drug resistant Salmonellae of both human and animal origins are global concerns and worrisome in countries where the risk of infection is high and treatment options are limited. The objective of this study was to estimate the proportions of animal isolates resistant to antimicrobials used against human salmonellosis in Ethiopia.

Methods: Published studies on the antimicrobial resistance features of Salmonellae isolated from food animals of Ethiopia were searched in Medline, Google Scholar and the lists of references of articles. Eligible studies were selected by using inclusion and exclusion criteria and data were extracted. The extracted data included the host species, the numbers of isolates and the numbers of ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin resistant isolates. The risks of bias were assessed and the percentages of the variations of the estimates attributable to heterogeneities were quantified. Pooled proportions were estimated by the DerSimonian and Laird random effects model.

Results: Five hundred and fifty four Salmonellae isolated from cattle, camels, sheep, goats and pigs were tested with a variety of antimicrobials. The percentages of the variations attributable to heterogeneities were low for chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone (I(2) = 0) and high for ampicillin, co-trimoxazole and ciprofloxacin resistance estimates (I(2) > 75%). The pooled estimate of ampicillin resistant isolates was higher in slaughtered ruminants (17.28%) than in pigs (3.95%), (p < 0.001). The pooled estimates of co-trimoxazole resistant isolates in true ruminants (4.35%) and pigs (1.12%) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The overall pooled estimates of chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone resistant isolates were 2.24% and 1.25%, respectively. Seven serotypes have been reported to be resistant to antimicrobials uncommonly used in veterinary clinical practice in Ethiopia.

Conclusions: Among Salmonellae of farm animals, there exist strains that are resistant to drugs used in the therapeutic management of human salmonellosis in Ethiopia. Intervention measures should be taken to ensure the prudent use of antimicrobials and curb the spread of high risk strains across the country.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus