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Improving ammonium and nitrate release from urea using clinoptilolite zeolite and compost produced from agricultural wastes.

Omar L, Ahmed OH, Ab Majid NM - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Bottom Line: Ammonium and NO3 (-) leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments.At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4 (+) retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone.Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Bintulu Sarawak Campus, 97008 Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Improper use of urea may cause environmental pollution through NH3 volatilization and NO3 (-) leaching from urea. Clinoptilolite zeolite and compost could be used to control N loss from urea by controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea. Soil incubation and leaching experiments were conducted to determine the effects of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost on controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) losses from urea. Bekenu Series soil (Typic Paleudults) was incubated for 30, 60, and 90 days. A soil leaching experiment was conducted for 30 days. Urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost significantly reduced NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea (soil incubation study) compared with urea alone, thus reducing leaching of these ions. Ammonium and NO3 (-) leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments. At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4 (+) retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone. These observations were because of the high pH, CEC, and other chemical properties of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost. Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea.

No MeSH data available.


Effects of treatments (T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4) and periods (30, 60, and 90 days) of incubation on soil available nitrate. Note. T0: 250 g soil (no urea); T1: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea (no additives); T2: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite; T3: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost; T4: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite. Means with the same letter are not significantly different by Tukey's test at P ≤ 0.05. Note. Letters without prime represent 30 DAI, single prime superscript represents 60 DAI, and double prime superscript represents 90 DAI.
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fig4: Effects of treatments (T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4) and periods (30, 60, and 90 days) of incubation on soil available nitrate. Note. T0: 250 g soil (no urea); T1: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea (no additives); T2: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite; T3: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost; T4: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite. Means with the same letter are not significantly different by Tukey's test at P ≤ 0.05. Note. Letters without prime represent 30 DAI, single prime superscript represents 60 DAI, and double prime superscript represents 90 DAI.

Mentions: All the mixtures (T2, T3, and T4) significantly increased soil available NO3− at 30 DAI, 60 DAI, and 90 DAI compared with urea without additives (T1) as demonstrated in Figure 4. The compost reduced leaching of NO3− from the soil because of its C/N ratio (15.17) (Table 2). As reported by Kristensen et al. [48], incorporation of N rich compost, (low C/N ratio composts) led to rapid mineralization with associated increase in soil mineral N. At C/N ratio of 15 or less, mineralization occurs, whereas above a C/N ratio of 15, N is immobilized [48]. In a related study in which biosolids-yard waste compost was used to hinder NO3− leaching, Xia et al. [49] reported that the concentrations of NO3−-N in their first leachates were high but they decreased in the subsequent leachates for all compost amended media. The higher soil available NO3− at 30 DAI, 60 DAI, and 90 DAI in T2 and T4 compared with urea alone (T1) as presented in Figure 4 was because of the presence of clinoptilolite zeolite. This is possible because of the clinoptilolite zeolite's ion exchange system which enables absorption of anions such as NO3− and phosphates [10]. The significant increase in the soil available NO3− at 30 DAI, 60 DAI, and 90 DAI in T4 Figure 4 was also partly because of the increase in soil pH (due to pH of the compost). It is widely accepted that high pH has significant effect on availability of NO3− as it influences nitrification and denitrification. Loss of NO3− to N2O and NO emissions increase under low soil pH [45].


Improving ammonium and nitrate release from urea using clinoptilolite zeolite and compost produced from agricultural wastes.

Omar L, Ahmed OH, Ab Majid NM - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Effects of treatments (T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4) and periods (30, 60, and 90 days) of incubation on soil available nitrate. Note. T0: 250 g soil (no urea); T1: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea (no additives); T2: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite; T3: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost; T4: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite. Means with the same letter are not significantly different by Tukey's test at P ≤ 0.05. Note. Letters without prime represent 30 DAI, single prime superscript represents 60 DAI, and double prime superscript represents 90 DAI.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352482&req=5

fig4: Effects of treatments (T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4) and periods (30, 60, and 90 days) of incubation on soil available nitrate. Note. T0: 250 g soil (no urea); T1: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea (no additives); T2: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite; T3: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost; T4: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite. Means with the same letter are not significantly different by Tukey's test at P ≤ 0.05. Note. Letters without prime represent 30 DAI, single prime superscript represents 60 DAI, and double prime superscript represents 90 DAI.
Mentions: All the mixtures (T2, T3, and T4) significantly increased soil available NO3− at 30 DAI, 60 DAI, and 90 DAI compared with urea without additives (T1) as demonstrated in Figure 4. The compost reduced leaching of NO3− from the soil because of its C/N ratio (15.17) (Table 2). As reported by Kristensen et al. [48], incorporation of N rich compost, (low C/N ratio composts) led to rapid mineralization with associated increase in soil mineral N. At C/N ratio of 15 or less, mineralization occurs, whereas above a C/N ratio of 15, N is immobilized [48]. In a related study in which biosolids-yard waste compost was used to hinder NO3− leaching, Xia et al. [49] reported that the concentrations of NO3−-N in their first leachates were high but they decreased in the subsequent leachates for all compost amended media. The higher soil available NO3− at 30 DAI, 60 DAI, and 90 DAI in T2 and T4 compared with urea alone (T1) as presented in Figure 4 was because of the presence of clinoptilolite zeolite. This is possible because of the clinoptilolite zeolite's ion exchange system which enables absorption of anions such as NO3− and phosphates [10]. The significant increase in the soil available NO3− at 30 DAI, 60 DAI, and 90 DAI in T4 Figure 4 was also partly because of the increase in soil pH (due to pH of the compost). It is widely accepted that high pH has significant effect on availability of NO3− as it influences nitrification and denitrification. Loss of NO3− to N2O and NO emissions increase under low soil pH [45].

Bottom Line: Ammonium and NO3 (-) leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments.At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4 (+) retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone.Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Bintulu Sarawak Campus, 97008 Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Improper use of urea may cause environmental pollution through NH3 volatilization and NO3 (-) leaching from urea. Clinoptilolite zeolite and compost could be used to control N loss from urea by controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea. Soil incubation and leaching experiments were conducted to determine the effects of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost on controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) losses from urea. Bekenu Series soil (Typic Paleudults) was incubated for 30, 60, and 90 days. A soil leaching experiment was conducted for 30 days. Urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost significantly reduced NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea (soil incubation study) compared with urea alone, thus reducing leaching of these ions. Ammonium and NO3 (-) leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments. At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4 (+) retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone. These observations were because of the high pH, CEC, and other chemical properties of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost. Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea.

No MeSH data available.