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Improving ammonium and nitrate release from urea using clinoptilolite zeolite and compost produced from agricultural wastes.

Omar L, Ahmed OH, Ab Majid NM - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Bottom Line: Ammonium and NO3 (-) leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments.At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4 (+) retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone.Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Bintulu Sarawak Campus, 97008 Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Improper use of urea may cause environmental pollution through NH3 volatilization and NO3 (-) leaching from urea. Clinoptilolite zeolite and compost could be used to control N loss from urea by controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea. Soil incubation and leaching experiments were conducted to determine the effects of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost on controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) losses from urea. Bekenu Series soil (Typic Paleudults) was incubated for 30, 60, and 90 days. A soil leaching experiment was conducted for 30 days. Urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost significantly reduced NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea (soil incubation study) compared with urea alone, thus reducing leaching of these ions. Ammonium and NO3 (-) leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments. At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4 (+) retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone. These observations were because of the high pH, CEC, and other chemical properties of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost. Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea.

No MeSH data available.


Effects of treatments (T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4) and periods (30, 60, and 90 days) of incubation on soil pH. Note. T0: 250 g soil (no urea); T1: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea (no additives); T2: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite; T3: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost; T4: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite. Means with the same letter are not significantly different by Tukey's test at P ≤ 0.05. Note. Letters without prime represent 30 DAI, single prime superscript represents 60 DAI, and double prime superscript represents 90 DAI.
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fig2: Effects of treatments (T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4) and periods (30, 60, and 90 days) of incubation on soil pH. Note. T0: 250 g soil (no urea); T1: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea (no additives); T2: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite; T3: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost; T4: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite. Means with the same letter are not significantly different by Tukey's test at P ≤ 0.05. Note. Letters without prime represent 30 DAI, single prime superscript represents 60 DAI, and double prime superscript represents 90 DAI.

Mentions: Urea with clinoptilolite zeolite (T2) significantly increased soil pH compared with those of soil alone (T0) and urea without additives (T1) at 30 DAI and 90 DAI but not at 60 DAI (Figure 2). The soil pH was higher in T3 (urea mixed with compost) and T4 (urea mixed with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost) compared with T0 (soil alone) and T1 (urea alone) at 30 DAI, 60 DAI, and 90 DAI, respectively. The higher pH in T2, T3, and T4 was because soil pH increases with urea hydrolysis. As urea hydrolyzes, NH4+, OH−, and CO32− ions are released to increase soil pH [44]. The pH of the compost (7.66) may have partly contributed to the increase in soil pH (Figure 2). Conversion of organic N to NH4+ for instance is very slow when pH is in the range of 5 to 6 [45]. According to Weier and Gilliam [45], nitrification decreases when soil pH is low (pH 5 to 6). This explains the lower total N in T0 and T1 at 30, 60, and 90 DAI (Figure 1).


Improving ammonium and nitrate release from urea using clinoptilolite zeolite and compost produced from agricultural wastes.

Omar L, Ahmed OH, Ab Majid NM - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Effects of treatments (T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4) and periods (30, 60, and 90 days) of incubation on soil pH. Note. T0: 250 g soil (no urea); T1: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea (no additives); T2: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite; T3: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost; T4: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite. Means with the same letter are not significantly different by Tukey's test at P ≤ 0.05. Note. Letters without prime represent 30 DAI, single prime superscript represents 60 DAI, and double prime superscript represents 90 DAI.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352482&req=5

fig2: Effects of treatments (T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4) and periods (30, 60, and 90 days) of incubation on soil pH. Note. T0: 250 g soil (no urea); T1: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea (no additives); T2: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite; T3: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost; T4: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite. Means with the same letter are not significantly different by Tukey's test at P ≤ 0.05. Note. Letters without prime represent 30 DAI, single prime superscript represents 60 DAI, and double prime superscript represents 90 DAI.
Mentions: Urea with clinoptilolite zeolite (T2) significantly increased soil pH compared with those of soil alone (T0) and urea without additives (T1) at 30 DAI and 90 DAI but not at 60 DAI (Figure 2). The soil pH was higher in T3 (urea mixed with compost) and T4 (urea mixed with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost) compared with T0 (soil alone) and T1 (urea alone) at 30 DAI, 60 DAI, and 90 DAI, respectively. The higher pH in T2, T3, and T4 was because soil pH increases with urea hydrolysis. As urea hydrolyzes, NH4+, OH−, and CO32− ions are released to increase soil pH [44]. The pH of the compost (7.66) may have partly contributed to the increase in soil pH (Figure 2). Conversion of organic N to NH4+ for instance is very slow when pH is in the range of 5 to 6 [45]. According to Weier and Gilliam [45], nitrification decreases when soil pH is low (pH 5 to 6). This explains the lower total N in T0 and T1 at 30, 60, and 90 DAI (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Ammonium and NO3 (-) leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments.At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4 (+) retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone.Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Bintulu Sarawak Campus, 97008 Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Improper use of urea may cause environmental pollution through NH3 volatilization and NO3 (-) leaching from urea. Clinoptilolite zeolite and compost could be used to control N loss from urea by controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea. Soil incubation and leaching experiments were conducted to determine the effects of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost on controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) losses from urea. Bekenu Series soil (Typic Paleudults) was incubated for 30, 60, and 90 days. A soil leaching experiment was conducted for 30 days. Urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost significantly reduced NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea (soil incubation study) compared with urea alone, thus reducing leaching of these ions. Ammonium and NO3 (-) leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments. At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4 (+) retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone. These observations were because of the high pH, CEC, and other chemical properties of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost. Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea.

No MeSH data available.