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Improving ammonium and nitrate release from urea using clinoptilolite zeolite and compost produced from agricultural wastes.

Omar L, Ahmed OH, Ab Majid NM - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Bottom Line: Ammonium and NO3 (-) leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments.At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4 (+) retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone.Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Bintulu Sarawak Campus, 97008 Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Improper use of urea may cause environmental pollution through NH3 volatilization and NO3 (-) leaching from urea. Clinoptilolite zeolite and compost could be used to control N loss from urea by controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea. Soil incubation and leaching experiments were conducted to determine the effects of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost on controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) losses from urea. Bekenu Series soil (Typic Paleudults) was incubated for 30, 60, and 90 days. A soil leaching experiment was conducted for 30 days. Urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost significantly reduced NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea (soil incubation study) compared with urea alone, thus reducing leaching of these ions. Ammonium and NO3 (-) leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments. At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4 (+) retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone. These observations were because of the high pH, CEC, and other chemical properties of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost. Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea.

No MeSH data available.


Effects of treatments (T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4) and periods (30, 60, and 90 days) of incubation on soil total N. Note. T0: 250 g soil (no urea); T1: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea (no additives); T2: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite; T3: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost; T4: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite. Means with the same letter are not significantly different by Tukey's test at P ≤ 0.05. Note. Letters without prime represent 30 DAI, single prime superscript represents 60 DAI, and double prime superscript represents 90 DAI.
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fig1: Effects of treatments (T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4) and periods (30, 60, and 90 days) of incubation on soil total N. Note. T0: 250 g soil (no urea); T1: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea (no additives); T2: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite; T3: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost; T4: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite. Means with the same letter are not significantly different by Tukey's test at P ≤ 0.05. Note. Letters without prime represent 30 DAI, single prime superscript represents 60 DAI, and double prime superscript represents 90 DAI.

Mentions: The effects of urea without additives (T1) and urea with additives (T2, T3, and T4) on total N at 30 DAI were not significantly different (Figure 1). However, total N in the soil was significantly higher in T4 compared with T0 and T1 at 60 DAI. Soil total N was significantly higher in T3 and T4 compared with urea without additives (T1) at 90 DAI (Figure 1). These results suggest that mixing urea with soil resulted in greater urea mineralization at 30 DAI and 60 DAI, but urea mixed with compost (T3) and the combination of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost (T4) were more effective in retaining N at 90 DAI. The higher total N in T3 and T4 as compared with T1 at 90 DAI is consistent with the higher organic matter (47.09%) of the compost used in this study (Table 2). This is possible because, in composts, N is present in the form of stable organic N which is slowly but steadily released over time through mineralization. Mineralization of organic N in composts involves the conversion of organic forms of N to NH3 or NH4+ and NO3− [1].


Improving ammonium and nitrate release from urea using clinoptilolite zeolite and compost produced from agricultural wastes.

Omar L, Ahmed OH, Ab Majid NM - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Effects of treatments (T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4) and periods (30, 60, and 90 days) of incubation on soil total N. Note. T0: 250 g soil (no urea); T1: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea (no additives); T2: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite; T3: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost; T4: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite. Means with the same letter are not significantly different by Tukey's test at P ≤ 0.05. Note. Letters without prime represent 30 DAI, single prime superscript represents 60 DAI, and double prime superscript represents 90 DAI.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352482&req=5

fig1: Effects of treatments (T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4) and periods (30, 60, and 90 days) of incubation on soil total N. Note. T0: 250 g soil (no urea); T1: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea (no additives); T2: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite; T3: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost; T4: 250 g soil + 7.40 g urea + 6 g compost + 6 g clinoptilolite zeolite. Means with the same letter are not significantly different by Tukey's test at P ≤ 0.05. Note. Letters without prime represent 30 DAI, single prime superscript represents 60 DAI, and double prime superscript represents 90 DAI.
Mentions: The effects of urea without additives (T1) and urea with additives (T2, T3, and T4) on total N at 30 DAI were not significantly different (Figure 1). However, total N in the soil was significantly higher in T4 compared with T0 and T1 at 60 DAI. Soil total N was significantly higher in T3 and T4 compared with urea without additives (T1) at 90 DAI (Figure 1). These results suggest that mixing urea with soil resulted in greater urea mineralization at 30 DAI and 60 DAI, but urea mixed with compost (T3) and the combination of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost (T4) were more effective in retaining N at 90 DAI. The higher total N in T3 and T4 as compared with T1 at 90 DAI is consistent with the higher organic matter (47.09%) of the compost used in this study (Table 2). This is possible because, in composts, N is present in the form of stable organic N which is slowly but steadily released over time through mineralization. Mineralization of organic N in composts involves the conversion of organic forms of N to NH3 or NH4+ and NO3− [1].

Bottom Line: Ammonium and NO3 (-) leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments.At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4 (+) retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone.Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Bintulu Sarawak Campus, 97008 Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Improper use of urea may cause environmental pollution through NH3 volatilization and NO3 (-) leaching from urea. Clinoptilolite zeolite and compost could be used to control N loss from urea by controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea. Soil incubation and leaching experiments were conducted to determine the effects of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost on controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) losses from urea. Bekenu Series soil (Typic Paleudults) was incubated for 30, 60, and 90 days. A soil leaching experiment was conducted for 30 days. Urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost significantly reduced NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea (soil incubation study) compared with urea alone, thus reducing leaching of these ions. Ammonium and NO3 (-) leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments. At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4 (+) retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone. These observations were because of the high pH, CEC, and other chemical properties of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost. Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea.

No MeSH data available.