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Prolonged helium postconditioning protocols during early reperfusion do not induce cardioprotection in the rat heart in vivo: role of inflammatory cytokines.

Oei GT, Aslami H, Kerindongo RP, Steenstra RJ, Beurskens CJ, Tuip-de Boer AM, Juffermans NP, Hollmann MW, Preckel B, Weber NC - J Immunol Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Fifteen minutes of helium reduced infarct size from 43% in control to 21%, whereas 30 and 60 minutes of helium inhalation led to an infarct size of 47% and 39%, respectively.These results suggest that the effectiveness of the helium postconditioning protocol is very sensitive to duration of noble gas application.Additionally, helium was associated with higher levels of inflammatory cytokines; however, it is not clear whether this is causative of nature or part of an epiphenomenon.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Experimental Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Department of Anesthesiology, Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1100 DD Amsterdam, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Postconditioning of myocardial tissue employs short cycles of ischemia or pharmacologic agents during early reperfusion. Effects of helium postconditioning protocols on infarct size and the ischemia/reperfusion-induced immune response were investigated by measurement of protein and mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Rats were anesthetized with S-ketamine (150 mg/kg) and diazepam (1.5 mg/kg). Regional myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was induced; additional groups inhaled 15, 30, or 60 min of 70% helium during reperfusion. Fifteen minutes of helium reduced infarct size from 43% in control to 21%, whereas 30 and 60 minutes of helium inhalation led to an infarct size of 47% and 39%, respectively. Increased protein levels of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-3) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) were found after 30 or 60 min of helium inhalation, in comparison to control. 30 min of helium increased mRNA levels of CINC-3, IL-1β, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in myocardial tissue not directly subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. These results suggest that the effectiveness of the helium postconditioning protocol is very sensitive to duration of noble gas application. Additionally, helium was associated with higher levels of inflammatory cytokines; however, it is not clear whether this is causative of nature or part of an epiphenomenon.

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CINC-3 (a), IL-6 (b), IL-1β (c), and TNF-α (d) mRNA expression. Messenger RNA was analyzed in myocardial samples taken at the end of the experimental protocol. All animals underwent 15 min of stabilization and 25 min of ischemia (except for Sham) and 5, 15, or 30 min of reperfusion with or without helium. All data are shown as mean ± S.E.M. Amount of experiments in each group is shown below individual bars. To compare control (I/R) with helium intervention (I/R + He) at the various time points of reperfusion (5, 15, and 30 minutes), a two-way repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was done. *P < 0.05 I/R in comparison to He.
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fig3: CINC-3 (a), IL-6 (b), IL-1β (c), and TNF-α (d) mRNA expression. Messenger RNA was analyzed in myocardial samples taken at the end of the experimental protocol. All animals underwent 15 min of stabilization and 25 min of ischemia (except for Sham) and 5, 15, or 30 min of reperfusion with or without helium. All data are shown as mean ± S.E.M. Amount of experiments in each group is shown below individual bars. To compare control (I/R) with helium intervention (I/R + He) at the various time points of reperfusion (5, 15, and 30 minutes), a two-way repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was done. *P < 0.05 I/R in comparison to He.

Mentions: In the AAR myocardium, IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the I/R30 (8.3 ∗ 10−3) and He30 (8.5 ∗ 10−3) group in comparison to the CON (9.7 ∗ 10−4) group, also see Figure 3. In NAAR myocardium, all measured targets (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and CINC-3) increased with the course of the reperfusion time. Additionally, a specific and significant difference between control and helium groups was found after 30 min of reperfusion (marked with ∗ in figure) for all inflammatory cytokines. Helium significantly increased the mRNA expression level of all cytokines at 30 minutes of reperfusion. These results can also be seen in Figure 3.


Prolonged helium postconditioning protocols during early reperfusion do not induce cardioprotection in the rat heart in vivo: role of inflammatory cytokines.

Oei GT, Aslami H, Kerindongo RP, Steenstra RJ, Beurskens CJ, Tuip-de Boer AM, Juffermans NP, Hollmann MW, Preckel B, Weber NC - J Immunol Res (2015)

CINC-3 (a), IL-6 (b), IL-1β (c), and TNF-α (d) mRNA expression. Messenger RNA was analyzed in myocardial samples taken at the end of the experimental protocol. All animals underwent 15 min of stabilization and 25 min of ischemia (except for Sham) and 5, 15, or 30 min of reperfusion with or without helium. All data are shown as mean ± S.E.M. Amount of experiments in each group is shown below individual bars. To compare control (I/R) with helium intervention (I/R + He) at the various time points of reperfusion (5, 15, and 30 minutes), a two-way repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was done. *P < 0.05 I/R in comparison to He.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352470&req=5

fig3: CINC-3 (a), IL-6 (b), IL-1β (c), and TNF-α (d) mRNA expression. Messenger RNA was analyzed in myocardial samples taken at the end of the experimental protocol. All animals underwent 15 min of stabilization and 25 min of ischemia (except for Sham) and 5, 15, or 30 min of reperfusion with or without helium. All data are shown as mean ± S.E.M. Amount of experiments in each group is shown below individual bars. To compare control (I/R) with helium intervention (I/R + He) at the various time points of reperfusion (5, 15, and 30 minutes), a two-way repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was done. *P < 0.05 I/R in comparison to He.
Mentions: In the AAR myocardium, IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the I/R30 (8.3 ∗ 10−3) and He30 (8.5 ∗ 10−3) group in comparison to the CON (9.7 ∗ 10−4) group, also see Figure 3. In NAAR myocardium, all measured targets (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and CINC-3) increased with the course of the reperfusion time. Additionally, a specific and significant difference between control and helium groups was found after 30 min of reperfusion (marked with ∗ in figure) for all inflammatory cytokines. Helium significantly increased the mRNA expression level of all cytokines at 30 minutes of reperfusion. These results can also be seen in Figure 3.

Bottom Line: Fifteen minutes of helium reduced infarct size from 43% in control to 21%, whereas 30 and 60 minutes of helium inhalation led to an infarct size of 47% and 39%, respectively.These results suggest that the effectiveness of the helium postconditioning protocol is very sensitive to duration of noble gas application.Additionally, helium was associated with higher levels of inflammatory cytokines; however, it is not clear whether this is causative of nature or part of an epiphenomenon.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Experimental Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Department of Anesthesiology, Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1100 DD Amsterdam, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Postconditioning of myocardial tissue employs short cycles of ischemia or pharmacologic agents during early reperfusion. Effects of helium postconditioning protocols on infarct size and the ischemia/reperfusion-induced immune response were investigated by measurement of protein and mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Rats were anesthetized with S-ketamine (150 mg/kg) and diazepam (1.5 mg/kg). Regional myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was induced; additional groups inhaled 15, 30, or 60 min of 70% helium during reperfusion. Fifteen minutes of helium reduced infarct size from 43% in control to 21%, whereas 30 and 60 minutes of helium inhalation led to an infarct size of 47% and 39%, respectively. Increased protein levels of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-3) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) were found after 30 or 60 min of helium inhalation, in comparison to control. 30 min of helium increased mRNA levels of CINC-3, IL-1β, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in myocardial tissue not directly subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. These results suggest that the effectiveness of the helium postconditioning protocol is very sensitive to duration of noble gas application. Additionally, helium was associated with higher levels of inflammatory cytokines; however, it is not clear whether this is causative of nature or part of an epiphenomenon.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus