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Factors Affecting Definitions of and Approaches to Integrative Medicine: A Mixed Methods Study Examining China's Integrative Medicine Development.

Zhang W, Pritzker SE, Hui KK - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Bottom Line: Methods.Conclusion.These results carry implications for the ways in which western countries move forward with the definition and implementation of IM.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Center for East-West Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA.

ABSTRACT
Aim. This study identifies existing definitions and approaches among China's integrative medicine (IM) experts and examines relationships with key characteristics distinguishing individual experts. Methods. Snowball sampling was used to select 73 IM experts for semistructured interviews. In this mixed methods study, we first identified definitions and approaches through analyzing core statements. Four key factors, including age, education, practice type, and working environment, were then chosen to evaluate the associations with the definitions. Results. Four unique definitions were identified, including IM as a "new medicine" (D1), as a combination of western medicine (WM) and Chinese medicine (CM) (D2), as a modernization of CM (D3), and as a westernization of CM (D4). D4 was mostly supported by those working in WM organizations, while D3 was more prominent from individuals working in CM organizations (P = 0.00004). More than 64% clinicians had D2 while only 1 (5.9%) nonclinician had D2. Only 1 clinician (1.8%) had D4 while almost 30% nonclinicians had D4 (P = 0.0001). Among nonclinicians working in WM organizations, 83.3% of them had D4 (P = 0.001). Conclusion. Findings indicate that institutional structure and practice type are factors affecting IM approaches. These results carry implications for the ways in which western countries move forward with the definition and implementation of IM.

No MeSH data available.


The definition differences between subgroups in education background and practice type. WM-C: clinician whose original education was in western medicine. WM-nonC: nonclinicians whose original education was in western medicine. CM-C: clinician whose original education was in Chinese medicine. CM-nonC: nonclinicians whose original education was in Chinese medicine.  *WM-C expressed more D2 than other definitions significantly. P = 0.0001.
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fig3: The definition differences between subgroups in education background and practice type. WM-C: clinician whose original education was in western medicine. WM-nonC: nonclinicians whose original education was in western medicine. CM-C: clinician whose original education was in Chinese medicine. CM-nonC: nonclinicians whose original education was in Chinese medicine.  *WM-C expressed more D2 than other definitions significantly. P = 0.0001.

Mentions: Among those with an initial education in biomedicine, more than 70% of clinicians expressed D2 (pragmatic combination), while nonclinicians were roughly evenly distributed among the other three definitions and were a little more likely to have D4 (westernization of CM), followed by D1 (new medicine) and D3 (improving CM with current technology) (Fisher exact test P = 0.0001), as shown in Figure 3. For nonclinicians with an initial education in CM, two out of six nonclinicians expressed D3 and another four expressed D1. No one expressed D4 and D2 (Fisher exact test P = 0.12).


Factors Affecting Definitions of and Approaches to Integrative Medicine: A Mixed Methods Study Examining China's Integrative Medicine Development.

Zhang W, Pritzker SE, Hui KK - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

The definition differences between subgroups in education background and practice type. WM-C: clinician whose original education was in western medicine. WM-nonC: nonclinicians whose original education was in western medicine. CM-C: clinician whose original education was in Chinese medicine. CM-nonC: nonclinicians whose original education was in Chinese medicine.  *WM-C expressed more D2 than other definitions significantly. P = 0.0001.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352459&req=5

fig3: The definition differences between subgroups in education background and practice type. WM-C: clinician whose original education was in western medicine. WM-nonC: nonclinicians whose original education was in western medicine. CM-C: clinician whose original education was in Chinese medicine. CM-nonC: nonclinicians whose original education was in Chinese medicine.  *WM-C expressed more D2 than other definitions significantly. P = 0.0001.
Mentions: Among those with an initial education in biomedicine, more than 70% of clinicians expressed D2 (pragmatic combination), while nonclinicians were roughly evenly distributed among the other three definitions and were a little more likely to have D4 (westernization of CM), followed by D1 (new medicine) and D3 (improving CM with current technology) (Fisher exact test P = 0.0001), as shown in Figure 3. For nonclinicians with an initial education in CM, two out of six nonclinicians expressed D3 and another four expressed D1. No one expressed D4 and D2 (Fisher exact test P = 0.12).

Bottom Line: Methods.Conclusion.These results carry implications for the ways in which western countries move forward with the definition and implementation of IM.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Center for East-West Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA.

ABSTRACT
Aim. This study identifies existing definitions and approaches among China's integrative medicine (IM) experts and examines relationships with key characteristics distinguishing individual experts. Methods. Snowball sampling was used to select 73 IM experts for semistructured interviews. In this mixed methods study, we first identified definitions and approaches through analyzing core statements. Four key factors, including age, education, practice type, and working environment, were then chosen to evaluate the associations with the definitions. Results. Four unique definitions were identified, including IM as a "new medicine" (D1), as a combination of western medicine (WM) and Chinese medicine (CM) (D2), as a modernization of CM (D3), and as a westernization of CM (D4). D4 was mostly supported by those working in WM organizations, while D3 was more prominent from individuals working in CM organizations (P = 0.00004). More than 64% clinicians had D2 while only 1 (5.9%) nonclinician had D2. Only 1 clinician (1.8%) had D4 while almost 30% nonclinicians had D4 (P = 0.0001). Among nonclinicians working in WM organizations, 83.3% of them had D4 (P = 0.001). Conclusion. Findings indicate that institutional structure and practice type are factors affecting IM approaches. These results carry implications for the ways in which western countries move forward with the definition and implementation of IM.

No MeSH data available.