Limits...
The secretion of IL-22 from mucosal NKp44⁺ NK cells is associated with microbial translocation and virus infection in SIV/SHIV-infected Chinese macaques.

Wang W, Wu F, Cong Z, Liu K, Qin C, Wei Q - J Immunol Res (2014)

Bottom Line: Microbial translocation (MT) causes systemic immune activation in chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.As a result, the degranulation capacity and IL-22 production of mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells were associated with the MT level in the SHIV-infected macaques.The number of mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells and interleukin-22 (IL-22) secretion by these cells increased before MT occurred.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Human Diseases Comparative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Key Laboratory of Human Diseases Animal Models, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medical Center, Peking Union Medical College, No. 5 Panjiayuan Nanli, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021, China.

ABSTRACT
Microbial translocation (MT) causes systemic immune activation in chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The role of a novel subtype of innate lymphoid cells, the NKp44(+) NK cells, in HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus- (SIV-) induced MT remains unknown. In this study, 12 simian-human immunodeficiency virus- (SHIV-) infected macaques were chosen and split into two groups based on the MT level. Blood and Peripheral lymphoid tissue were sampled for flow cytometric analysis, viral load detection, and interleukin testing. Then, six naive Chinese macaques were used to determine the dynamics of cytokine secretion from mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells in different phases of SIV infection. As a result, the degranulation capacity and IL-22 production of mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells were associated with the MT level in the SHIV-infected macaques. And the number of mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells and IL-22 secretion by these cells were lower in the chronic phase than in the early acute phase of SIV infection. The number of mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells and interleukin-22 (IL-22) secretion by these cells increased before MT occurred. Therefore, we conclude that a decline in IL-22 production from mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells induced by virus infection may be one of the causes of microbial translocation in HIV/SIV infection.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of the percentages of T cells and B cells at different sites in the microbial translocation (MT)high and MTlow groups. (a) T cells, (b) B cells, (c) CD4+ T cells, and (d) CD3+CD4−CD8− T cells of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), lymph node mononuclear cells (LNMCs), Peyer's patches mononuclear cells (PPMCs), and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) were compared between the MThigh and MTlow groups of monkeys. The column bar indicates the mean of the ratio of target cells (lymphocytes in (a) and (b); T cells in (c) and (d)). Error bars and individual standard deviations (SD) are shown. *P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, and ***P ≤ 0.001 as calculated by two-sided nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352435&req=5

fig2: Comparison of the percentages of T cells and B cells at different sites in the microbial translocation (MT)high and MTlow groups. (a) T cells, (b) B cells, (c) CD4+ T cells, and (d) CD3+CD4−CD8− T cells of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), lymph node mononuclear cells (LNMCs), Peyer's patches mononuclear cells (PPMCs), and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) were compared between the MThigh and MTlow groups of monkeys. The column bar indicates the mean of the ratio of target cells (lymphocytes in (a) and (b); T cells in (c) and (d)). Error bars and individual standard deviations (SD) are shown. *P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, and ***P ≤ 0.001 as calculated by two-sided nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test.

Mentions: As little is known about the effects of MT on lymphocyte subtypes in SHIV-infected Chinese macaques, we quantified the lymphocyte subtypes (including CD3+ T cells and CD20+ B cells) in the blood, ileum, and lymph node specimens. Representative results from the gating strategy used to identify lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are shown in Figure  S2(a). The level of T cells in the MThigh group was higher than that in the MTlow group for both the lymph node (P < 0.05) and Peyer's patches (P < 0.001) specimens (Figure 2(a)), and the frequency of B cells in the MThigh group was lower than that in the MTlow group for the blood (P < 0.05), lymph node (P < 0.01), and Peyer's patches (P < 0.01) specimens (Figure 2(b)). These results indicated that MT can affect lymphocyte subtype in lymph node and Peyer's patches of Chinese macaques. However, further analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the ratio of CD3+CD4+ T cells and CD3+CD8+ T cells detected from the MTlow and MThigh groups (Figure 2(c) and data of CD8+ cells not shown). The frequency of CD3+CD4−CD8− T cells in the MThigh group was higher than that in the MTlow group for the Peyer's patches (Figure 2(d)).


The secretion of IL-22 from mucosal NKp44⁺ NK cells is associated with microbial translocation and virus infection in SIV/SHIV-infected Chinese macaques.

Wang W, Wu F, Cong Z, Liu K, Qin C, Wei Q - J Immunol Res (2014)

Comparison of the percentages of T cells and B cells at different sites in the microbial translocation (MT)high and MTlow groups. (a) T cells, (b) B cells, (c) CD4+ T cells, and (d) CD3+CD4−CD8− T cells of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), lymph node mononuclear cells (LNMCs), Peyer's patches mononuclear cells (PPMCs), and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) were compared between the MThigh and MTlow groups of monkeys. The column bar indicates the mean of the ratio of target cells (lymphocytes in (a) and (b); T cells in (c) and (d)). Error bars and individual standard deviations (SD) are shown. *P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, and ***P ≤ 0.001 as calculated by two-sided nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352435&req=5

fig2: Comparison of the percentages of T cells and B cells at different sites in the microbial translocation (MT)high and MTlow groups. (a) T cells, (b) B cells, (c) CD4+ T cells, and (d) CD3+CD4−CD8− T cells of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), lymph node mononuclear cells (LNMCs), Peyer's patches mononuclear cells (PPMCs), and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) were compared between the MThigh and MTlow groups of monkeys. The column bar indicates the mean of the ratio of target cells (lymphocytes in (a) and (b); T cells in (c) and (d)). Error bars and individual standard deviations (SD) are shown. *P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, and ***P ≤ 0.001 as calculated by two-sided nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test.
Mentions: As little is known about the effects of MT on lymphocyte subtypes in SHIV-infected Chinese macaques, we quantified the lymphocyte subtypes (including CD3+ T cells and CD20+ B cells) in the blood, ileum, and lymph node specimens. Representative results from the gating strategy used to identify lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are shown in Figure  S2(a). The level of T cells in the MThigh group was higher than that in the MTlow group for both the lymph node (P < 0.05) and Peyer's patches (P < 0.001) specimens (Figure 2(a)), and the frequency of B cells in the MThigh group was lower than that in the MTlow group for the blood (P < 0.05), lymph node (P < 0.01), and Peyer's patches (P < 0.01) specimens (Figure 2(b)). These results indicated that MT can affect lymphocyte subtype in lymph node and Peyer's patches of Chinese macaques. However, further analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the ratio of CD3+CD4+ T cells and CD3+CD8+ T cells detected from the MTlow and MThigh groups (Figure 2(c) and data of CD8+ cells not shown). The frequency of CD3+CD4−CD8− T cells in the MThigh group was higher than that in the MTlow group for the Peyer's patches (Figure 2(d)).

Bottom Line: Microbial translocation (MT) causes systemic immune activation in chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.As a result, the degranulation capacity and IL-22 production of mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells were associated with the MT level in the SHIV-infected macaques.The number of mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells and interleukin-22 (IL-22) secretion by these cells increased before MT occurred.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Human Diseases Comparative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Key Laboratory of Human Diseases Animal Models, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medical Center, Peking Union Medical College, No. 5 Panjiayuan Nanli, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021, China.

ABSTRACT
Microbial translocation (MT) causes systemic immune activation in chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The role of a novel subtype of innate lymphoid cells, the NKp44(+) NK cells, in HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus- (SIV-) induced MT remains unknown. In this study, 12 simian-human immunodeficiency virus- (SHIV-) infected macaques were chosen and split into two groups based on the MT level. Blood and Peripheral lymphoid tissue were sampled for flow cytometric analysis, viral load detection, and interleukin testing. Then, six naive Chinese macaques were used to determine the dynamics of cytokine secretion from mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells in different phases of SIV infection. As a result, the degranulation capacity and IL-22 production of mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells were associated with the MT level in the SHIV-infected macaques. And the number of mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells and IL-22 secretion by these cells were lower in the chronic phase than in the early acute phase of SIV infection. The number of mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells and interleukin-22 (IL-22) secretion by these cells increased before MT occurred. Therefore, we conclude that a decline in IL-22 production from mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells induced by virus infection may be one of the causes of microbial translocation in HIV/SIV infection.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus