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Are human endogenous retroviruses pathogenic? An approach to testing the hypothesis.

Young GR, Stoye JP, Kassiotis G - Bioessays (2013)

Bottom Line: Recent technological advances in sequencing and bioinformatics are making this task increasingly feasible.The accumulating knowledge of HERV biology may also facilitate the definition and general acceptance of criteria that establish HERV pathogenicity.Here, we explore possible mechanisms whereby HERVs may cause disease and examine the evidence that either has been or should be obtained in order to decisively address the pathogenic potential of HERVs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Virology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Model of retroviral endogenization. Retroviral infection of a germ cell is thought to make integration into the host germ line (denoted by an asterisk) possible. If an infected germ cell develops into offspring, it will transmit its provirus to every single cell of the offspring, akin to inheritance of a host gene. In evolutionary time, germ-line integrated proviruses can either expand in number within the germ-line and in the population, ultimately achieving fixation, or become extinct by random events or selection pressure against them.
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fig02: Model of retroviral endogenization. Retroviral infection of a germ cell is thought to make integration into the host germ line (denoted by an asterisk) possible. If an infected germ cell develops into offspring, it will transmit its provirus to every single cell of the offspring, akin to inheritance of a host gene. In evolutionary time, germ-line integrated proviruses can either expand in number within the germ-line and in the population, ultimately achieving fixation, or become extinct by random events or selection pressure against them.

Mentions: Due to the requirement for a proviral stage in the retroviral life cycle, occasional infections in germ cells (Fig. 2) have preserved ERVs as a ‘fossil record’ of ancestral retroviral infections spanning many millions of years 8.


Are human endogenous retroviruses pathogenic? An approach to testing the hypothesis.

Young GR, Stoye JP, Kassiotis G - Bioessays (2013)

Model of retroviral endogenization. Retroviral infection of a germ cell is thought to make integration into the host germ line (denoted by an asterisk) possible. If an infected germ cell develops into offspring, it will transmit its provirus to every single cell of the offspring, akin to inheritance of a host gene. In evolutionary time, germ-line integrated proviruses can either expand in number within the germ-line and in the population, ultimately achieving fixation, or become extinct by random events or selection pressure against them.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352332&req=5

fig02: Model of retroviral endogenization. Retroviral infection of a germ cell is thought to make integration into the host germ line (denoted by an asterisk) possible. If an infected germ cell develops into offspring, it will transmit its provirus to every single cell of the offspring, akin to inheritance of a host gene. In evolutionary time, germ-line integrated proviruses can either expand in number within the germ-line and in the population, ultimately achieving fixation, or become extinct by random events or selection pressure against them.
Mentions: Due to the requirement for a proviral stage in the retroviral life cycle, occasional infections in germ cells (Fig. 2) have preserved ERVs as a ‘fossil record’ of ancestral retroviral infections spanning many millions of years 8.

Bottom Line: Recent technological advances in sequencing and bioinformatics are making this task increasingly feasible.The accumulating knowledge of HERV biology may also facilitate the definition and general acceptance of criteria that establish HERV pathogenicity.Here, we explore possible mechanisms whereby HERVs may cause disease and examine the evidence that either has been or should be obtained in order to decisively address the pathogenic potential of HERVs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Virology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus