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A small molecule activator of AKT does not reduce ischemic injury of the rat heart.

Moreira JB, Wohlwend M, Alves MN, Wisløff U, Bye A - J Transl Med (2015)

Bottom Line: Similarly, mitochondrial enzyme activity was not affected by SC79.Finally, SC79 failed to reduce infarct size or release of cardiac injury biomarkers at reperfusion.We conclude that selective AKT activation by the synthetic molecule SC79 does not protect the rat heart against ischemic injury, indicating that acute pharmacological activation of AKT is not sufficient for cardioprotection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: K.G. Jebsen Center of Exercise in Medicine, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, St. Olavs Hospital, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Prinsesse Kristinas gt. 3, 7006, Trondheim, Norway. jose.moreira@ntnu.no.

ABSTRACT

Background: Activation of protein kinase AKT is required for cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning, and transgenic overexpression of AKT protects the heart against ischemia. However, it is unknown whether acute pharmacological activation of AKT alone, using a therapeutically relevant strategy, induces cardioprotection. In this study we provide the first evidence to clarify this question.

Methods: We used a recently described specific activator of AKT, the small molecule SC79, to treat rat hearts submitted to ischemia and reperfusion. Initially, isolated rat hearts were perfused with increasing doses of SC79 to verify the magnitude of AKT activation. Low and high doses were determined and used to treat hearts submitted to ischemia (35 minutes) and reperfusion (60 minutes), in a randomized and blinded design. AKT activation was verified by western immunobloting. Metabolic profile was determined by cardiac ATP content and mitochondrial enzyme activity, while cytosolic levels of cytochrome C and caspase-3 activity were used as markers of apoptosis. Ischemic injury was assessed by quantification of infarct size and cardiac release of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase.

Results: SC79 activated cardiac AKT within 30 minutes in a dose-dependent fashion. ATP content was largely reduced by ischemia, but was not rescued by SC79. Similarly, mitochondrial enzyme activity was not affected by SC79. SC79 administered before ischemia or at reperfusion did not prevent cytosolic accumulation of cytochrome C and overactivation of caspase-3. Finally, SC79 failed to reduce infarct size or release of cardiac injury biomarkers at reperfusion.

Conclusion: We conclude that selective AKT activation by the synthetic molecule SC79 does not protect the rat heart against ischemic injury, indicating that acute pharmacological activation of AKT is not sufficient for cardioprotection.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Cardiac ATP content and mitochondrial enzyme activity.A: Cardiac ATP content at the end of reperfusion. LV, left ventricle. B: 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HADH) activity. C: Citrate synthase activity in heart homogenates. D: Citrate synthase activity in isolated mitochondria. Data are shown as mean ± SE. &, p < 0.05 vs. all other groups.
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Fig3: Cardiac ATP content and mitochondrial enzyme activity.A: Cardiac ATP content at the end of reperfusion. LV, left ventricle. B: 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HADH) activity. C: Citrate synthase activity in heart homogenates. D: Citrate synthase activity in isolated mitochondria. Data are shown as mean ± SE. &, p < 0.05 vs. all other groups.

Mentions: Disrupted energy metabolism is a hallmark of ischemia and an important endpoint in studies on cardioprotection [4,21]. ATP content was largely reduced in hearts submitted to ischemia (Figure 3A). ATP depletion was similar among IR-Control and all SC79-treated groups (Figure 3A). We also assessed maximal activity of mitochondrial enzymes HADH (essential for beta-oxidation of fatty acids) and citrate synthase (pace-making enzyme for the first step of the Krebs cycle). Surprisingly, activity of HADH (Figure 3B) and citrate synthase (Figure 3C and D) were not affected by ischemia, suggesting that the reduced ATP content was due to dysfunction of mitochondrial complexes rather than loss of mitochondria. SC79 did not affect activities of HADH (Figure 3B) or citrate synthase (Figure 3C and D).Figure 3


A small molecule activator of AKT does not reduce ischemic injury of the rat heart.

Moreira JB, Wohlwend M, Alves MN, Wisløff U, Bye A - J Transl Med (2015)

Cardiac ATP content and mitochondrial enzyme activity.A: Cardiac ATP content at the end of reperfusion. LV, left ventricle. B: 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HADH) activity. C: Citrate synthase activity in heart homogenates. D: Citrate synthase activity in isolated mitochondria. Data are shown as mean ± SE. &, p < 0.05 vs. all other groups.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352273&req=5

Fig3: Cardiac ATP content and mitochondrial enzyme activity.A: Cardiac ATP content at the end of reperfusion. LV, left ventricle. B: 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HADH) activity. C: Citrate synthase activity in heart homogenates. D: Citrate synthase activity in isolated mitochondria. Data are shown as mean ± SE. &, p < 0.05 vs. all other groups.
Mentions: Disrupted energy metabolism is a hallmark of ischemia and an important endpoint in studies on cardioprotection [4,21]. ATP content was largely reduced in hearts submitted to ischemia (Figure 3A). ATP depletion was similar among IR-Control and all SC79-treated groups (Figure 3A). We also assessed maximal activity of mitochondrial enzymes HADH (essential for beta-oxidation of fatty acids) and citrate synthase (pace-making enzyme for the first step of the Krebs cycle). Surprisingly, activity of HADH (Figure 3B) and citrate synthase (Figure 3C and D) were not affected by ischemia, suggesting that the reduced ATP content was due to dysfunction of mitochondrial complexes rather than loss of mitochondria. SC79 did not affect activities of HADH (Figure 3B) or citrate synthase (Figure 3C and D).Figure 3

Bottom Line: Similarly, mitochondrial enzyme activity was not affected by SC79.Finally, SC79 failed to reduce infarct size or release of cardiac injury biomarkers at reperfusion.We conclude that selective AKT activation by the synthetic molecule SC79 does not protect the rat heart against ischemic injury, indicating that acute pharmacological activation of AKT is not sufficient for cardioprotection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: K.G. Jebsen Center of Exercise in Medicine, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, St. Olavs Hospital, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Prinsesse Kristinas gt. 3, 7006, Trondheim, Norway. jose.moreira@ntnu.no.

ABSTRACT

Background: Activation of protein kinase AKT is required for cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning, and transgenic overexpression of AKT protects the heart against ischemia. However, it is unknown whether acute pharmacological activation of AKT alone, using a therapeutically relevant strategy, induces cardioprotection. In this study we provide the first evidence to clarify this question.

Methods: We used a recently described specific activator of AKT, the small molecule SC79, to treat rat hearts submitted to ischemia and reperfusion. Initially, isolated rat hearts were perfused with increasing doses of SC79 to verify the magnitude of AKT activation. Low and high doses were determined and used to treat hearts submitted to ischemia (35 minutes) and reperfusion (60 minutes), in a randomized and blinded design. AKT activation was verified by western immunobloting. Metabolic profile was determined by cardiac ATP content and mitochondrial enzyme activity, while cytosolic levels of cytochrome C and caspase-3 activity were used as markers of apoptosis. Ischemic injury was assessed by quantification of infarct size and cardiac release of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase.

Results: SC79 activated cardiac AKT within 30 minutes in a dose-dependent fashion. ATP content was largely reduced by ischemia, but was not rescued by SC79. Similarly, mitochondrial enzyme activity was not affected by SC79. SC79 administered before ischemia or at reperfusion did not prevent cytosolic accumulation of cytochrome C and overactivation of caspase-3. Finally, SC79 failed to reduce infarct size or release of cardiac injury biomarkers at reperfusion.

Conclusion: We conclude that selective AKT activation by the synthetic molecule SC79 does not protect the rat heart against ischemic injury, indicating that acute pharmacological activation of AKT is not sufficient for cardioprotection.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus