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Embryonic and larval development in the Midas cichlid fish species flock (Amphilophus spp.): a new evo-devo model for the investigation of adaptive novelties and species differences.

Kratochwil CF, Sefton MM, Meyer A - BMC Dev. Biol. (2015)

Bottom Line: Key morphological differences between the embryos of Midas cichlids and other teleosts are highlighted and discussed, including the presence of adhesive glands and different early chromatophore patterns, as well as variation in developmental timing.In the past, the species flocks of the African Great Lakes have received the most attention from researchers, but some lineages of the 300-400 species of Central American lakes are fascinating model systems for adaptive radiation and rapid phenotypic evolution.The availability of genetic resources, their status as a model system for evolutionary research, and the possibility to perform functional experiments including transgenesis makes the Midas cichlid complex a very attractive model for evolutionary-developmental research.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zoology and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany. claudius.kratochwil@uni-konstanz.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: Central American crater lake cichlid fish of the Midas species complex (Amphilophus spp.) are a model system for sympatric speciation and fast ecological diversification and specialization. Midas cichlids have been intensively analyzed from an ecological and morphological perspective. Genomic resources such as transcriptomic and genomic data sets, and a high-quality draft genome are available now. Many ecologically relevant species-specific traits and differences such as pigmentation and cranial morphology arise during development. Detailed descriptions of the early development of the Midas cichlid in particular, will help to investigate the ontogeny of species differences and adaptations.

Results: We describe the embryonic and larval development of the crater lake cichlid, Amphilophus xiloaensis, until seven days after fertilization. Similar to previous studies on teleost development, we describe six periods of embryogenesis - the zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, segmentation, and post-hatching period. Furthermore, we define homologous stages to well-described teleost models such as medaka and zebrafish, as well as other cichlid species such as the Nile tilapia and the South American cichlid Cichlasoma dimerus. Key morphological differences between the embryos of Midas cichlids and other teleosts are highlighted and discussed, including the presence of adhesive glands and different early chromatophore patterns, as well as variation in developmental timing.

Conclusions: The developmental staging of the Midas cichlid will aid researchers in the comparative investigation of teleost ontogenies. It will facilitate comparative developmental biological studies of Neotropical and African cichlid fish in particular. In the past, the species flocks of the African Great Lakes have received the most attention from researchers, but some lineages of the 300-400 species of Central American lakes are fascinating model systems for adaptive radiation and rapid phenotypic evolution. The availability of genetic resources, their status as a model system for evolutionary research, and the possibility to perform functional experiments including transgenesis makes the Midas cichlid complex a very attractive model for evolutionary-developmental research.

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The effects of temperature on developmental time. Developmental rates in D. rerio (zebrafish) at 25, 28.5 and 33°C (from [22]), C. dimerus (South-American substrate-brooding cichlid) at 25°C (from [29]) and the Midas cichlids at 25, 28 and 31°C (this study), standardized to zebrafish development at 28.5°C (from [22]).
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Fig9: The effects of temperature on developmental time. Developmental rates in D. rerio (zebrafish) at 25, 28.5 and 33°C (from [22]), C. dimerus (South-American substrate-brooding cichlid) at 25°C (from [29]) and the Midas cichlids at 25, 28 and 31°C (this study), standardized to zebrafish development at 28.5°C (from [22]).

Mentions: The early development of the Midas cichlid is slower than that of teleost genetic models such as medaka and zebrafish. However, it is comparable to the African Nile tilapia (Figure 9). We compared the homologous developmental stages to the South American cichlid Cichlasoma dimerus and the zebrafish Danio rerio. We show that, when raised at the same temperature (25°C), the developmental rate between fertilization and 100% epiboly is approximately two times slower than in C. dimerus and over four times slower than in zebrafish (Figure 9, Figure 10B). In particular, the rate of epiboly seems to be decelerated compared to zebrafish, a phenomenon that might be related to the large egg size. The influence of temperature on developmental rate is far greater than in zebrafish, where there is only a 1.42-fold difference between embryos developing at 25°C and 31°C [22]. In Midas cichlids, the difference is 1.76-fold. Despite this, later developmental stages seem to be less affected by temperature, with only minor differences in hatching time, development of pectoral fins and mouth opening between C. dimerus and A. xiloaensis (Figure 10A, B).Figure 9


Embryonic and larval development in the Midas cichlid fish species flock (Amphilophus spp.): a new evo-devo model for the investigation of adaptive novelties and species differences.

Kratochwil CF, Sefton MM, Meyer A - BMC Dev. Biol. (2015)

The effects of temperature on developmental time. Developmental rates in D. rerio (zebrafish) at 25, 28.5 and 33°C (from [22]), C. dimerus (South-American substrate-brooding cichlid) at 25°C (from [29]) and the Midas cichlids at 25, 28 and 31°C (this study), standardized to zebrafish development at 28.5°C (from [22]).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352272&req=5

Fig9: The effects of temperature on developmental time. Developmental rates in D. rerio (zebrafish) at 25, 28.5 and 33°C (from [22]), C. dimerus (South-American substrate-brooding cichlid) at 25°C (from [29]) and the Midas cichlids at 25, 28 and 31°C (this study), standardized to zebrafish development at 28.5°C (from [22]).
Mentions: The early development of the Midas cichlid is slower than that of teleost genetic models such as medaka and zebrafish. However, it is comparable to the African Nile tilapia (Figure 9). We compared the homologous developmental stages to the South American cichlid Cichlasoma dimerus and the zebrafish Danio rerio. We show that, when raised at the same temperature (25°C), the developmental rate between fertilization and 100% epiboly is approximately two times slower than in C. dimerus and over four times slower than in zebrafish (Figure 9, Figure 10B). In particular, the rate of epiboly seems to be decelerated compared to zebrafish, a phenomenon that might be related to the large egg size. The influence of temperature on developmental rate is far greater than in zebrafish, where there is only a 1.42-fold difference between embryos developing at 25°C and 31°C [22]. In Midas cichlids, the difference is 1.76-fold. Despite this, later developmental stages seem to be less affected by temperature, with only minor differences in hatching time, development of pectoral fins and mouth opening between C. dimerus and A. xiloaensis (Figure 10A, B).Figure 9

Bottom Line: Key morphological differences between the embryos of Midas cichlids and other teleosts are highlighted and discussed, including the presence of adhesive glands and different early chromatophore patterns, as well as variation in developmental timing.In the past, the species flocks of the African Great Lakes have received the most attention from researchers, but some lineages of the 300-400 species of Central American lakes are fascinating model systems for adaptive radiation and rapid phenotypic evolution.The availability of genetic resources, their status as a model system for evolutionary research, and the possibility to perform functional experiments including transgenesis makes the Midas cichlid complex a very attractive model for evolutionary-developmental research.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zoology and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany. claudius.kratochwil@uni-konstanz.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: Central American crater lake cichlid fish of the Midas species complex (Amphilophus spp.) are a model system for sympatric speciation and fast ecological diversification and specialization. Midas cichlids have been intensively analyzed from an ecological and morphological perspective. Genomic resources such as transcriptomic and genomic data sets, and a high-quality draft genome are available now. Many ecologically relevant species-specific traits and differences such as pigmentation and cranial morphology arise during development. Detailed descriptions of the early development of the Midas cichlid in particular, will help to investigate the ontogeny of species differences and adaptations.

Results: We describe the embryonic and larval development of the crater lake cichlid, Amphilophus xiloaensis, until seven days after fertilization. Similar to previous studies on teleost development, we describe six periods of embryogenesis - the zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, segmentation, and post-hatching period. Furthermore, we define homologous stages to well-described teleost models such as medaka and zebrafish, as well as other cichlid species such as the Nile tilapia and the South American cichlid Cichlasoma dimerus. Key morphological differences between the embryos of Midas cichlids and other teleosts are highlighted and discussed, including the presence of adhesive glands and different early chromatophore patterns, as well as variation in developmental timing.

Conclusions: The developmental staging of the Midas cichlid will aid researchers in the comparative investigation of teleost ontogenies. It will facilitate comparative developmental biological studies of Neotropical and African cichlid fish in particular. In the past, the species flocks of the African Great Lakes have received the most attention from researchers, but some lineages of the 300-400 species of Central American lakes are fascinating model systems for adaptive radiation and rapid phenotypic evolution. The availability of genetic resources, their status as a model system for evolutionary research, and the possibility to perform functional experiments including transgenesis makes the Midas cichlid complex a very attractive model for evolutionary-developmental research.

Show MeSH