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Measurement of waist and hip circumference with a body surface scanner: feasibility, validity, reliability, and correlations with markers of the metabolic syndrome.

Jaeschke L, Steinbrecher A, Pischon T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Additionally, MM were taken by trained personnel according to WHO guidelines.Body measures were higher in AM compared to MM but both measurements were strongly correlated (WC, men, difference = 1.5 cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 4.7 cm, r = 0.96; HC, men, d = 2.3 cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 3.0 cm; r = 0.98).Reliability was high for all AM (nearly all ICC>0.98).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Epidemiology Group, Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC), Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Body surface scanners (BS), which visualize a 3D image of the human body, facilitate the computation of numerous body measures, including height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC). However, limited information is available regarding validity and reliability of these automated measurements (AM) and their correlation with parameters of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) compared to traditional manual measurements (MM).

Methods: As part of a cross-sectional feasibility study, AM of WC, HC and height were assessed twice in 60 participants using a 3D BS (VitussmartXXL). Additionally, MM were taken by trained personnel according to WHO guidelines. Participants underwent an interview, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and blood pressure measurement. Blood samples were taken to determine HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Validity was assessed based on the agreement between AM and MM, using Bland-Altman-plots, correlation analysis, and paired t-tests. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) based on two repeated AM. Further, we calculated age-adjusted Pearson correlation for AM and MM with fat mass, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid.

Results: Body measures were higher in AM compared to MM but both measurements were strongly correlated (WC, men, difference = 1.5 cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 4.7 cm, r = 0.96; HC, men, d = 2.3 cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 3.0 cm; r = 0.98). Reliability was high for all AM (nearly all ICC>0.98). Correlations of WC, HC, and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with parameters of MetS were similar between AM and MM; for example the correlation of WC assessed by AM with HDL-cholesterol was r = 0.35 in men, and r = -0.48 in women, respectively whereas correlation of WC measured manually with HDL cholesterol was r = -0.41 in men, and r = -0.49 in women, respectively.

Conclusions: Although AM of WC, HC, and WHR are higher when compared to MM based on WHO guidelines, our data indicate good validity, excellent reliability, and similar correlations to parameters of the MetS.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

3D scan images (screenshots from the AnthroScan Professional software interface) with marked measures as assessed in this study.Yellow lines indicate the actual measuring site; purple lines indicate reference measurements. (a) body-height; (b) waist-girth, (c) high-waist-girth, (d) waist-band, (e) belly-circumference; (f) buttock-girth, (g) middle-hip, (h) high-hip-girth, (i) hip-girth, and (j) hip-thigh-girth (Picture: modified from Human Solutions GmbH)
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pone.0119430.g001: 3D scan images (screenshots from the AnthroScan Professional software interface) with marked measures as assessed in this study.Yellow lines indicate the actual measuring site; purple lines indicate reference measurements. (a) body-height; (b) waist-girth, (c) high-waist-girth, (d) waist-band, (e) belly-circumference; (f) buttock-girth, (g) middle-hip, (h) high-hip-girth, (i) hip-girth, and (j) hip-thigh-girth (Picture: modified from Human Solutions GmbH)

Mentions: AM was performed using the BS VitussmartXXL and the software AnthroScan Professional (both Human Solutions GmbH, Kaiserslautern, Germany) with participants being undressed up to the underwear, wearing a bathing cap, and standing in a standard position defined by the manufacturer (standing upright with legs hip-wide apart, arms slightly bend and away from the body, hands making a fist with thumbs showing forward, and head positioned in accordance with the Frankfort Horizontal). Using four eye-safe lasers and eight cameras, the BS provides a 3D point cloud based on optical triangulation. From this, 153 anthropometric measures are computed by the BS software according to ISO 20685:2005 [16]. These include four parameters for WC (waist-girth, high-waist-girth, waist-band, belly-circumference), five parameters for HC (buttock-girth, middle-hip, high-hip-girth, hip-girth, hip-thigh-girth), and one parameter for WHR (based on waist-girth and buttock-girth), which were used in the following analyses (Fig. 1). All participants were scanned twice, while breathing normally in scan 1 and breathing out in scan 2. Based on a predefined checklist (S1 Table), 3D pictures were controlled visually with regard to their quality, deviations from the standard protocol, and plausibility of measuring points and measured values. We assessed number of scans completed and pictures acquired. For feasibility purpose we further assessed duration of AM, deviations from the standard posture with regard to arm and leg posture and improper clothing, as well as the participants’ burden due to AM (no, little, moderate or high burden) and number of required scan attempts for yielding an evaluable picture.


Measurement of waist and hip circumference with a body surface scanner: feasibility, validity, reliability, and correlations with markers of the metabolic syndrome.

Jaeschke L, Steinbrecher A, Pischon T - PLoS ONE (2015)

3D scan images (screenshots from the AnthroScan Professional software interface) with marked measures as assessed in this study.Yellow lines indicate the actual measuring site; purple lines indicate reference measurements. (a) body-height; (b) waist-girth, (c) high-waist-girth, (d) waist-band, (e) belly-circumference; (f) buttock-girth, (g) middle-hip, (h) high-hip-girth, (i) hip-girth, and (j) hip-thigh-girth (Picture: modified from Human Solutions GmbH)
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352076&req=5

pone.0119430.g001: 3D scan images (screenshots from the AnthroScan Professional software interface) with marked measures as assessed in this study.Yellow lines indicate the actual measuring site; purple lines indicate reference measurements. (a) body-height; (b) waist-girth, (c) high-waist-girth, (d) waist-band, (e) belly-circumference; (f) buttock-girth, (g) middle-hip, (h) high-hip-girth, (i) hip-girth, and (j) hip-thigh-girth (Picture: modified from Human Solutions GmbH)
Mentions: AM was performed using the BS VitussmartXXL and the software AnthroScan Professional (both Human Solutions GmbH, Kaiserslautern, Germany) with participants being undressed up to the underwear, wearing a bathing cap, and standing in a standard position defined by the manufacturer (standing upright with legs hip-wide apart, arms slightly bend and away from the body, hands making a fist with thumbs showing forward, and head positioned in accordance with the Frankfort Horizontal). Using four eye-safe lasers and eight cameras, the BS provides a 3D point cloud based on optical triangulation. From this, 153 anthropometric measures are computed by the BS software according to ISO 20685:2005 [16]. These include four parameters for WC (waist-girth, high-waist-girth, waist-band, belly-circumference), five parameters for HC (buttock-girth, middle-hip, high-hip-girth, hip-girth, hip-thigh-girth), and one parameter for WHR (based on waist-girth and buttock-girth), which were used in the following analyses (Fig. 1). All participants were scanned twice, while breathing normally in scan 1 and breathing out in scan 2. Based on a predefined checklist (S1 Table), 3D pictures were controlled visually with regard to their quality, deviations from the standard protocol, and plausibility of measuring points and measured values. We assessed number of scans completed and pictures acquired. For feasibility purpose we further assessed duration of AM, deviations from the standard posture with regard to arm and leg posture and improper clothing, as well as the participants’ burden due to AM (no, little, moderate or high burden) and number of required scan attempts for yielding an evaluable picture.

Bottom Line: Additionally, MM were taken by trained personnel according to WHO guidelines.Body measures were higher in AM compared to MM but both measurements were strongly correlated (WC, men, difference = 1.5 cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 4.7 cm, r = 0.96; HC, men, d = 2.3 cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 3.0 cm; r = 0.98).Reliability was high for all AM (nearly all ICC>0.98).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Epidemiology Group, Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC), Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Body surface scanners (BS), which visualize a 3D image of the human body, facilitate the computation of numerous body measures, including height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC). However, limited information is available regarding validity and reliability of these automated measurements (AM) and their correlation with parameters of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) compared to traditional manual measurements (MM).

Methods: As part of a cross-sectional feasibility study, AM of WC, HC and height were assessed twice in 60 participants using a 3D BS (VitussmartXXL). Additionally, MM were taken by trained personnel according to WHO guidelines. Participants underwent an interview, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and blood pressure measurement. Blood samples were taken to determine HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Validity was assessed based on the agreement between AM and MM, using Bland-Altman-plots, correlation analysis, and paired t-tests. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) based on two repeated AM. Further, we calculated age-adjusted Pearson correlation for AM and MM with fat mass, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid.

Results: Body measures were higher in AM compared to MM but both measurements were strongly correlated (WC, men, difference = 1.5 cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 4.7 cm, r = 0.96; HC, men, d = 2.3 cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 3.0 cm; r = 0.98). Reliability was high for all AM (nearly all ICC>0.98). Correlations of WC, HC, and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with parameters of MetS were similar between AM and MM; for example the correlation of WC assessed by AM with HDL-cholesterol was r = 0.35 in men, and r = -0.48 in women, respectively whereas correlation of WC measured manually with HDL cholesterol was r = -0.41 in men, and r = -0.49 in women, respectively.

Conclusions: Although AM of WC, HC, and WHR are higher when compared to MM based on WHO guidelines, our data indicate good validity, excellent reliability, and similar correlations to parameters of the MetS.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus