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Investigating the role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the re-emergence of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig herds: a pathological, prevalence and risk-factor study.

Batista Linhares M, Belloy L, Origgi FC, Lechner I, Segner H, Ryser-Degiorgis MP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a source of re-infection.We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs.However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health (FIWI), Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2) to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3) to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3%) but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Registered outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pigs from 2010 to 2013.The number of outbreaks (N) is indicated for each study area (units A-E) and colors indicate the source of infection. Dark blue: Domestic pig. Grey: Unknown, wild boar unlikely. Light blue: Unknown, wild boar suspected.
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pone.0119060.g001: Registered outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pigs from 2010 to 2013.The number of outbreaks (N) is indicated for each study area (units A-E) and colors indicate the source of infection. Dark blue: Domestic pig. Grey: Unknown, wild boar unlikely. Light blue: Unknown, wild boar suspected.

Mentions: This study was carried out in Switzerland (41’285 km2). Five sampling units (A, B, C, D and E) were defined based on the following criteria: 1) wild boar density index (WBDens) or relative abundance, calculated by dividing the number of recorded dead wild boar (including hunting bag and animals found dead [31]) by the unit surface (km2); 2) estimated density of outdoor piggeries (OPDens), calculated by dividing the number of registered piggeries (dataset of Wu et al. [32]) by the unit surface; 3) geographical characteristics of Swiss bioregions (Federal Office for the Environment [33–35]); 4) local climate (Federal Meteorology and Climatology Department [36–38]); and 5) occurrence of EP outbreaks in the domestic pig population between 2010 and 2013 (Fig. 1, data from the cantonal veterinary offices and [39]).


Investigating the role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the re-emergence of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig herds: a pathological, prevalence and risk-factor study.

Batista Linhares M, Belloy L, Origgi FC, Lechner I, Segner H, Ryser-Degiorgis MP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Registered outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pigs from 2010 to 2013.The number of outbreaks (N) is indicated for each study area (units A-E) and colors indicate the source of infection. Dark blue: Domestic pig. Grey: Unknown, wild boar unlikely. Light blue: Unknown, wild boar suspected.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352045&req=5

pone.0119060.g001: Registered outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pigs from 2010 to 2013.The number of outbreaks (N) is indicated for each study area (units A-E) and colors indicate the source of infection. Dark blue: Domestic pig. Grey: Unknown, wild boar unlikely. Light blue: Unknown, wild boar suspected.
Mentions: This study was carried out in Switzerland (41’285 km2). Five sampling units (A, B, C, D and E) were defined based on the following criteria: 1) wild boar density index (WBDens) or relative abundance, calculated by dividing the number of recorded dead wild boar (including hunting bag and animals found dead [31]) by the unit surface (km2); 2) estimated density of outdoor piggeries (OPDens), calculated by dividing the number of registered piggeries (dataset of Wu et al. [32]) by the unit surface; 3) geographical characteristics of Swiss bioregions (Federal Office for the Environment [33–35]); 4) local climate (Federal Meteorology and Climatology Department [36–38]); and 5) occurrence of EP outbreaks in the domestic pig population between 2010 and 2013 (Fig. 1, data from the cantonal veterinary offices and [39]).

Bottom Line: A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a source of re-infection.We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs.However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health (FIWI), Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2) to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3) to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3%) but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus