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Action and valence modulate choice and choice-induced preference change.

Koster R, Duzel E, Dolan RJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Whether choice was expressed actively or passively affected the dynamics of revaluation differently for positive and negatively valenced items.Additionally, the choice itself was biased towards action such that subjects tended to choose a photograph obtained by action more often than a photographed obtained through inaction.These results highlight intrinsic biases consistent with a tight coupling of action and reward and add to an emerging understanding of how the mode of action itself, and not just an associated outcome, modulates the decision making process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, United Kingdom; Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Choices are not only communicated via explicit actions but also passively through inaction. In this study we investigated how active or passive choice impacts upon the choice process itself as well as a preference change induced by choice. Subjects were tasked to select a preference for unfamiliar photographs by action or inaction, before and after they gave valuation ratings for all photographs. We replicate a finding that valuation increases for chosen items and decreases for unchosen items compared to a control condition in which the choice was made post re-evaluation. Whether choice was expressed actively or passively affected the dynamics of revaluation differently for positive and negatively valenced items. Additionally, the choice itself was biased towards action such that subjects tended to choose a photograph obtained by action more often than a photographed obtained through inaction. These results highlight intrinsic biases consistent with a tight coupling of action and reward and add to an emerging understanding of how the mode of action itself, and not just an associated outcome, modulates the decision making process.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Experimental Design.The experimental paradigm comprised four distinct sessions. In Rating Session 1 subjects rated all images. These images were then paired on the basis of matched ratings. In Choice Session 1 subjects could freely choose (by either pressing or not pressing a button) or a computer chose at random. In Rating Session 2 subject rated all images again while text informed subjects as to what occurred in Choice Session 1. Finally, in Choice Session 2 the pairs the computer chose beforehand in Choice Session 1 were displayed. Subjects freely chose again by performing or omitting a button press like in Choice Session 1. This experiment was conducted in two independent samples with two different stimulus sets (positive and negative valence). Comparing the value change from Rating Session 1 to 2 for chosen and unchosen items before revaluation and after revaluation provided a measure of choice-induced value change. We tested whether this choice-induced value change was modulated by action or inaction (Go/No Go) and by valence. The frequency of choice expressed in a response Go or No Go allows us to test for a bias induced by action on choice itself.
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pone.0119682.g001: Experimental Design.The experimental paradigm comprised four distinct sessions. In Rating Session 1 subjects rated all images. These images were then paired on the basis of matched ratings. In Choice Session 1 subjects could freely choose (by either pressing or not pressing a button) or a computer chose at random. In Rating Session 2 subject rated all images again while text informed subjects as to what occurred in Choice Session 1. Finally, in Choice Session 2 the pairs the computer chose beforehand in Choice Session 1 were displayed. Subjects freely chose again by performing or omitting a button press like in Choice Session 1. This experiment was conducted in two independent samples with two different stimulus sets (positive and negative valence). Comparing the value change from Rating Session 1 to 2 for chosen and unchosen items before revaluation and after revaluation provided a measure of choice-induced value change. We tested whether this choice-induced value change was modulated by action or inaction (Go/No Go) and by valence. The frequency of choice expressed in a response Go or No Go allows us to test for a bias induced by action on choice itself.

Mentions: As described in Fig. 1, we adapted a free choice paradigm [9,10,19] to investigate the impact of approach on choice and choice-induced preference-change. Choice-induced value change is measured as the rating change between sessions for each item. The difference in this rating change for chosen and unchosen items (chosen-unchosen spread) reflects choice but also contains noise [6,7]. To calculate the genuine choice-induced preference change the chosen-unchosen spread is compared between the two experimental conditions, namely the experimental condition in which choice precedes revaluation and the control condition in which the choice is made after revaluation [6,7]. Crucially, choice itself was expressed either by action via button press (Go, as model for approach) or inaction (No Go), allowing us to test whether approach biases the choice itself and whether revaluation is modulated as a function of how the choice is expressed (Go or No Go). By conducting the experiment in two independent samples with a positive or negative valence stimulus set we could also test the hypothesis whether valence had a differential effect on a modulation of value and combined effect with action.


Action and valence modulate choice and choice-induced preference change.

Koster R, Duzel E, Dolan RJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Experimental Design.The experimental paradigm comprised four distinct sessions. In Rating Session 1 subjects rated all images. These images were then paired on the basis of matched ratings. In Choice Session 1 subjects could freely choose (by either pressing or not pressing a button) or a computer chose at random. In Rating Session 2 subject rated all images again while text informed subjects as to what occurred in Choice Session 1. Finally, in Choice Session 2 the pairs the computer chose beforehand in Choice Session 1 were displayed. Subjects freely chose again by performing or omitting a button press like in Choice Session 1. This experiment was conducted in two independent samples with two different stimulus sets (positive and negative valence). Comparing the value change from Rating Session 1 to 2 for chosen and unchosen items before revaluation and after revaluation provided a measure of choice-induced value change. We tested whether this choice-induced value change was modulated by action or inaction (Go/No Go) and by valence. The frequency of choice expressed in a response Go or No Go allows us to test for a bias induced by action on choice itself.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352030&req=5

pone.0119682.g001: Experimental Design.The experimental paradigm comprised four distinct sessions. In Rating Session 1 subjects rated all images. These images were then paired on the basis of matched ratings. In Choice Session 1 subjects could freely choose (by either pressing or not pressing a button) or a computer chose at random. In Rating Session 2 subject rated all images again while text informed subjects as to what occurred in Choice Session 1. Finally, in Choice Session 2 the pairs the computer chose beforehand in Choice Session 1 were displayed. Subjects freely chose again by performing or omitting a button press like in Choice Session 1. This experiment was conducted in two independent samples with two different stimulus sets (positive and negative valence). Comparing the value change from Rating Session 1 to 2 for chosen and unchosen items before revaluation and after revaluation provided a measure of choice-induced value change. We tested whether this choice-induced value change was modulated by action or inaction (Go/No Go) and by valence. The frequency of choice expressed in a response Go or No Go allows us to test for a bias induced by action on choice itself.
Mentions: As described in Fig. 1, we adapted a free choice paradigm [9,10,19] to investigate the impact of approach on choice and choice-induced preference-change. Choice-induced value change is measured as the rating change between sessions for each item. The difference in this rating change for chosen and unchosen items (chosen-unchosen spread) reflects choice but also contains noise [6,7]. To calculate the genuine choice-induced preference change the chosen-unchosen spread is compared between the two experimental conditions, namely the experimental condition in which choice precedes revaluation and the control condition in which the choice is made after revaluation [6,7]. Crucially, choice itself was expressed either by action via button press (Go, as model for approach) or inaction (No Go), allowing us to test whether approach biases the choice itself and whether revaluation is modulated as a function of how the choice is expressed (Go or No Go). By conducting the experiment in two independent samples with a positive or negative valence stimulus set we could also test the hypothesis whether valence had a differential effect on a modulation of value and combined effect with action.

Bottom Line: Whether choice was expressed actively or passively affected the dynamics of revaluation differently for positive and negatively valenced items.Additionally, the choice itself was biased towards action such that subjects tended to choose a photograph obtained by action more often than a photographed obtained through inaction.These results highlight intrinsic biases consistent with a tight coupling of action and reward and add to an emerging understanding of how the mode of action itself, and not just an associated outcome, modulates the decision making process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, United Kingdom; Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Choices are not only communicated via explicit actions but also passively through inaction. In this study we investigated how active or passive choice impacts upon the choice process itself as well as a preference change induced by choice. Subjects were tasked to select a preference for unfamiliar photographs by action or inaction, before and after they gave valuation ratings for all photographs. We replicate a finding that valuation increases for chosen items and decreases for unchosen items compared to a control condition in which the choice was made post re-evaluation. Whether choice was expressed actively or passively affected the dynamics of revaluation differently for positive and negatively valenced items. Additionally, the choice itself was biased towards action such that subjects tended to choose a photograph obtained by action more often than a photographed obtained through inaction. These results highlight intrinsic biases consistent with a tight coupling of action and reward and add to an emerging understanding of how the mode of action itself, and not just an associated outcome, modulates the decision making process.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus