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Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. among children in rural Ghana.

Eibach D, Krumkamp R, Al-Emran HM, Sarpong N, Hagen RM, Adu-Sarkodie Y, Tannich E, May J - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: C. hominis infection was mainly associated with diarrhoea (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-4.9) whereas C. parvum infection was associated with both diarrhoea (OR = 2.6; CI: 1.2-5.8) and vomiting (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.5-6.1).The infection mainly affects young infants, with vomiting and diarrhoea being one of the leading symptoms in C. parvum infection.Combining molecular typing and clinical data provides valuable information for physicians and is able to track sources of infections.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine (BNITM), Hamburg, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), partner site Hamburg-Borstel-Lübeck, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background: The relevance of Cryptosporidium infections for the burden of childhood diarrhoea in endemic settings has been shown in recent years. This study describes Cryptosporidium subtypes among symptomatic and asymptomatic children in rural Ghana to analyse subtype-specific demographic, geographical, seasonal and clinical differences in order to inform appropriate control measures in endemic areas.

Methodology/principal findings: Stool samples were collected from 2232 children below 14 years of age presenting with and without gastrointestinal symptoms at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital in the rural Ashanti region of Ghana between May 2007 and September 2008. Samples were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. by PCR and isolates were classified into subtypes based on sequence differences in the gp60 gene. Subtype specific frequencies for age, sex, location and season have been determined and associations with disease symptoms have been analysed within a case-control study. Cryptosporidium infections were diagnosed in 116 of 2232 (5.2%) stool samples. Subtyping of 88 isolates revealed IIcA5G3 (n = 26, 29.6%), IbA13G3 (n = 17, 19.3%) and IaA21R3 (n = 12, 13.6%) as the three most frequent subtypes of the two species C. hominis and C. parvum, known to be transmitted anthroponotically. Infections peak at early rainy season with 67.9% and 50.0% of infections during the months April, May and June for 2007 and 2008 respectively. C. hominis infection was mainly associated with diarrhoea (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-4.9) whereas C. parvum infection was associated with both diarrhoea (OR = 2.6; CI: 1.2-5.8) and vomiting (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.5-6.1).

Conclusions/significance: Cryptosporidiosis is characterized by seasonal anthroponotic transmission of strains typically found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The infection mainly affects young infants, with vomiting and diarrhoea being one of the leading symptoms in C. parvum infection. Combining molecular typing and clinical data provides valuable information for physicians and is able to track sources of infections.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Number of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis cases by age and sex (n = 116).The majority of patients are below the age of three (87.1%, n = 101) years with 56.9% (n = 66) of cases being male. The mean age for male subjects (0.85; SD 0.90) is lower than for females (1.74; SD 2.36).
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pntd.0003551.g001: Number of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis cases by age and sex (n = 116).The majority of patients are below the age of three (87.1%, n = 101) years with 56.9% (n = 66) of cases being male. The mean age for male subjects (0.85; SD 0.90) is lower than for females (1.74; SD 2.36).

Mentions: Compared to the whole study group, the median age of Cryptosporidium spp. infected children was lower (median = 14 months; IQR 8–24). One hundred one (87.1%) and 87 (75.0%) patients were below the age of three and two years, respectively (Fig. 1). The majority of the cases were male (n = 66; 56.9%). The mean age for male subjects (0.85; SD 0.90) was lower than for females (1.74; SD 2.36). Patients were not equally distributed over the study period. In 2007, 10.5 patients/month were observed, while only 3.2 patients/month occurred in 2008. The proportion of infected patients peaked in the months May to July and April to July in 2007 and 2008 respectively, ranging between 5.3% (5/94) in May 2008 to 12.9% (8/62) in July 2008 (Fig. 2).


Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. among children in rural Ghana.

Eibach D, Krumkamp R, Al-Emran HM, Sarpong N, Hagen RM, Adu-Sarkodie Y, Tannich E, May J - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Number of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis cases by age and sex (n = 116).The majority of patients are below the age of three (87.1%, n = 101) years with 56.9% (n = 66) of cases being male. The mean age for male subjects (0.85; SD 0.90) is lower than for females (1.74; SD 2.36).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352007&req=5

pntd.0003551.g001: Number of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis cases by age and sex (n = 116).The majority of patients are below the age of three (87.1%, n = 101) years with 56.9% (n = 66) of cases being male. The mean age for male subjects (0.85; SD 0.90) is lower than for females (1.74; SD 2.36).
Mentions: Compared to the whole study group, the median age of Cryptosporidium spp. infected children was lower (median = 14 months; IQR 8–24). One hundred one (87.1%) and 87 (75.0%) patients were below the age of three and two years, respectively (Fig. 1). The majority of the cases were male (n = 66; 56.9%). The mean age for male subjects (0.85; SD 0.90) was lower than for females (1.74; SD 2.36). Patients were not equally distributed over the study period. In 2007, 10.5 patients/month were observed, while only 3.2 patients/month occurred in 2008. The proportion of infected patients peaked in the months May to July and April to July in 2007 and 2008 respectively, ranging between 5.3% (5/94) in May 2008 to 12.9% (8/62) in July 2008 (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: C. hominis infection was mainly associated with diarrhoea (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-4.9) whereas C. parvum infection was associated with both diarrhoea (OR = 2.6; CI: 1.2-5.8) and vomiting (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.5-6.1).The infection mainly affects young infants, with vomiting and diarrhoea being one of the leading symptoms in C. parvum infection.Combining molecular typing and clinical data provides valuable information for physicians and is able to track sources of infections.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine (BNITM), Hamburg, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), partner site Hamburg-Borstel-Lübeck, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background: The relevance of Cryptosporidium infections for the burden of childhood diarrhoea in endemic settings has been shown in recent years. This study describes Cryptosporidium subtypes among symptomatic and asymptomatic children in rural Ghana to analyse subtype-specific demographic, geographical, seasonal and clinical differences in order to inform appropriate control measures in endemic areas.

Methodology/principal findings: Stool samples were collected from 2232 children below 14 years of age presenting with and without gastrointestinal symptoms at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital in the rural Ashanti region of Ghana between May 2007 and September 2008. Samples were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. by PCR and isolates were classified into subtypes based on sequence differences in the gp60 gene. Subtype specific frequencies for age, sex, location and season have been determined and associations with disease symptoms have been analysed within a case-control study. Cryptosporidium infections were diagnosed in 116 of 2232 (5.2%) stool samples. Subtyping of 88 isolates revealed IIcA5G3 (n = 26, 29.6%), IbA13G3 (n = 17, 19.3%) and IaA21R3 (n = 12, 13.6%) as the three most frequent subtypes of the two species C. hominis and C. parvum, known to be transmitted anthroponotically. Infections peak at early rainy season with 67.9% and 50.0% of infections during the months April, May and June for 2007 and 2008 respectively. C. hominis infection was mainly associated with diarrhoea (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-4.9) whereas C. parvum infection was associated with both diarrhoea (OR = 2.6; CI: 1.2-5.8) and vomiting (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.5-6.1).

Conclusions/significance: Cryptosporidiosis is characterized by seasonal anthroponotic transmission of strains typically found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The infection mainly affects young infants, with vomiting and diarrhoea being one of the leading symptoms in C. parvum infection. Combining molecular typing and clinical data provides valuable information for physicians and is able to track sources of infections.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus