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Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

Carr-Harris C, Gottesfeld AS, Moore JW - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon.These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond.Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that use the estuary, then numerous fisheries would also be negatively affected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Skeena Fisheries Commission, 3135 Barnes Crescent, Kispiox, British Columbia, Canada; Earth to Ocean Research Group, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that use the estuary, then numerous fisheries would also be negatively affected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Average beach seine catches of juvenile pink (a), chum (b), coho (c), and Chinook (d) salmon by sub-region, pooled across all sampling dates.No sockeye salmon were captured by beach seine. Pink salmon catches greater than 100 per location are indicated by black dots above bars. Catches greater than 100 or 1000 individuals were calculated as 100 or 1000. Note different scales of y‐axes. Locations are as follows: KIN = Kinahan Islands, LEL = Lelu Island, RID = Ridley Island, TTS = Tsum Tsadai Inlet. LEL and RID sites are within footprints of proposed development.
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pone.0118988.g004: Average beach seine catches of juvenile pink (a), chum (b), coho (c), and Chinook (d) salmon by sub-region, pooled across all sampling dates.No sockeye salmon were captured by beach seine. Pink salmon catches greater than 100 per location are indicated by black dots above bars. Catches greater than 100 or 1000 individuals were calculated as 100 or 1000. Note different scales of y‐axes. Locations are as follows: KIN = Kinahan Islands, LEL = Lelu Island, RID = Ridley Island, TTS = Tsum Tsadai Inlet. LEL and RID sites are within footprints of proposed development.

Mentions: The prevalence of each species of juvenile salmon varied by gear type, sub-region, and region (Figs. 4, 5). Sockeye salmon were not caught in beach seine sets but were abundant in nearshore trawls, in some cases within 20 m of shore. Pink salmon were most abundant in beach seine sets, especially at Kinahan Islands and at Ridley Island close to the proposed industrial developments (Fig. 4A). Most chum salmon were captured in the Tsum Tsadai Inlet area, outside of the proposed development footprints (Fig. 4B). The highest beach seine catches for coho and Chinook salmon were near proposed developments at Lelu and Ridley Islands (Fig. 4C and D). The highest abundances of juvenile sockeye salmon in trawl sets were captured in the IN region in both years (Fig. 5), the region containing proposed industrial developments. For regions that were sampled in both years, the abundances of juvenile sockeye and coho salmon captured by trawl were similar within regions across years (Fig. 5). The highest abundances of juvenile Chinook salmon were captured by trawl in the IN region in 2007, and evenly distributed between the IN and IS regions in 2013 (Fig. 5). In 2007, the highest abundances (mean normalized trawl catches for all weeks) of both pink and chum salmon were captured in the ON region (not sampled in 2013) at two of the northernmost sites close to Portland Inlet, which drains the Nass River and empties into Chatham Sound (Fig. 5C and E). In 2013, the highest abundances of pink salmon captured by trawl were found in the OS region (Fig. 5C).


Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

Carr-Harris C, Gottesfeld AS, Moore JW - PLoS ONE (2015)

Average beach seine catches of juvenile pink (a), chum (b), coho (c), and Chinook (d) salmon by sub-region, pooled across all sampling dates.No sockeye salmon were captured by beach seine. Pink salmon catches greater than 100 per location are indicated by black dots above bars. Catches greater than 100 or 1000 individuals were calculated as 100 or 1000. Note different scales of y‐axes. Locations are as follows: KIN = Kinahan Islands, LEL = Lelu Island, RID = Ridley Island, TTS = Tsum Tsadai Inlet. LEL and RID sites are within footprints of proposed development.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4352006&req=5

pone.0118988.g004: Average beach seine catches of juvenile pink (a), chum (b), coho (c), and Chinook (d) salmon by sub-region, pooled across all sampling dates.No sockeye salmon were captured by beach seine. Pink salmon catches greater than 100 per location are indicated by black dots above bars. Catches greater than 100 or 1000 individuals were calculated as 100 or 1000. Note different scales of y‐axes. Locations are as follows: KIN = Kinahan Islands, LEL = Lelu Island, RID = Ridley Island, TTS = Tsum Tsadai Inlet. LEL and RID sites are within footprints of proposed development.
Mentions: The prevalence of each species of juvenile salmon varied by gear type, sub-region, and region (Figs. 4, 5). Sockeye salmon were not caught in beach seine sets but were abundant in nearshore trawls, in some cases within 20 m of shore. Pink salmon were most abundant in beach seine sets, especially at Kinahan Islands and at Ridley Island close to the proposed industrial developments (Fig. 4A). Most chum salmon were captured in the Tsum Tsadai Inlet area, outside of the proposed development footprints (Fig. 4B). The highest beach seine catches for coho and Chinook salmon were near proposed developments at Lelu and Ridley Islands (Fig. 4C and D). The highest abundances of juvenile sockeye salmon in trawl sets were captured in the IN region in both years (Fig. 5), the region containing proposed industrial developments. For regions that were sampled in both years, the abundances of juvenile sockeye and coho salmon captured by trawl were similar within regions across years (Fig. 5). The highest abundances of juvenile Chinook salmon were captured by trawl in the IN region in 2007, and evenly distributed between the IN and IS regions in 2013 (Fig. 5). In 2007, the highest abundances (mean normalized trawl catches for all weeks) of both pink and chum salmon were captured in the ON region (not sampled in 2013) at two of the northernmost sites close to Portland Inlet, which drains the Nass River and empties into Chatham Sound (Fig. 5C and E). In 2013, the highest abundances of pink salmon captured by trawl were found in the OS region (Fig. 5C).

Bottom Line: We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon.These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond.Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that use the estuary, then numerous fisheries would also be negatively affected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Skeena Fisheries Commission, 3135 Barnes Crescent, Kispiox, British Columbia, Canada; Earth to Ocean Research Group, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that use the estuary, then numerous fisheries would also be negatively affected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus