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The elements of life and medicines.

Chellan P, Sadler PJ - Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry.Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism.Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.

ABSTRACT
Which elements are essential for human life? Here we make an element-by-element journey through the periodic table and attempt to assess whether elements are essential or not, and if they are, whether there is a relevant code for them in the human genome. There are many difficulties such as the human biochemistry of several so-called essential elements is not well understood, and it is not clear how we should classify elements that are involved in the destruction of invading microorganisms, or elements which are essential for microorganisms with which we live in symbiosis. In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry. Today, the biological periodic table is in a position somewhat similar to Mendeleev's chemical periodic table of 1869: there are gaps and we need to do more research to fill them. The periodic table also offers potential for novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents, based on not only essential elements, but also non-essential elements, and on radionuclides. Although the potential for inorganic chemistry in medicine was realized more than 2000 years ago, this area of research is still in its infancy. Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism. Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Rates (and lifetimes) of water exchange on metal ions (adapted from [37]). Note the faster exchange on Ca2+ compared with Mg2+ and the very slow exchange on some transition metal ions. However, the rate of exchange can also show a marked dependence on the other ligands bound to the metal.
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RSTA20140182F2: Rates (and lifetimes) of water exchange on metal ions (adapted from [37]). Note the faster exchange on Ca2+ compared with Mg2+ and the very slow exchange on some transition metal ions. However, the rate of exchange can also show a marked dependence on the other ligands bound to the metal.

Mentions: Na+/K+-ATPase controls the transport of three Na+ ions to the outside of the cell and the transport of two K+ ions to the inside. This unbalanced charge transfer contributes to the separation of charge across the membrane. The sodium–potassium pump is an important contributor to the action potential produced by nerve cells. This pump is called a P-type ion pump because the ATP interactions phosphorylate the transport protein and causes a change in its conformation. For neurons, the Na+/K+-ATPase can be responsible for up to two-thirds of the cell's energy expenditure. Such transport relies on the kinetic lability of bound water molecules (lifetimes ca nanoseconds, figure 2) which are rapidly stripped off as the ions pass into the channel.Figure 2.


The elements of life and medicines.

Chellan P, Sadler PJ - Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (2015)

Rates (and lifetimes) of water exchange on metal ions (adapted from [37]). Note the faster exchange on Ca2+ compared with Mg2+ and the very slow exchange on some transition metal ions. However, the rate of exchange can also show a marked dependence on the other ligands bound to the metal.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4342972&req=5

RSTA20140182F2: Rates (and lifetimes) of water exchange on metal ions (adapted from [37]). Note the faster exchange on Ca2+ compared with Mg2+ and the very slow exchange on some transition metal ions. However, the rate of exchange can also show a marked dependence on the other ligands bound to the metal.
Mentions: Na+/K+-ATPase controls the transport of three Na+ ions to the outside of the cell and the transport of two K+ ions to the inside. This unbalanced charge transfer contributes to the separation of charge across the membrane. The sodium–potassium pump is an important contributor to the action potential produced by nerve cells. This pump is called a P-type ion pump because the ATP interactions phosphorylate the transport protein and causes a change in its conformation. For neurons, the Na+/K+-ATPase can be responsible for up to two-thirds of the cell's energy expenditure. Such transport relies on the kinetic lability of bound water molecules (lifetimes ca nanoseconds, figure 2) which are rapidly stripped off as the ions pass into the channel.Figure 2.

Bottom Line: In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry.Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism.Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.

ABSTRACT
Which elements are essential for human life? Here we make an element-by-element journey through the periodic table and attempt to assess whether elements are essential or not, and if they are, whether there is a relevant code for them in the human genome. There are many difficulties such as the human biochemistry of several so-called essential elements is not well understood, and it is not clear how we should classify elements that are involved in the destruction of invading microorganisms, or elements which are essential for microorganisms with which we live in symbiosis. In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry. Today, the biological periodic table is in a position somewhat similar to Mendeleev's chemical periodic table of 1869: there are gaps and we need to do more research to fill them. The periodic table also offers potential for novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents, based on not only essential elements, but also non-essential elements, and on radionuclides. Although the potential for inorganic chemistry in medicine was realized more than 2000 years ago, this area of research is still in its infancy. Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism. Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus