Limits...
The elements of life and medicines.

Chellan P, Sadler PJ - Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry.Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism.Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.

ABSTRACT
Which elements are essential for human life? Here we make an element-by-element journey through the periodic table and attempt to assess whether elements are essential or not, and if they are, whether there is a relevant code for them in the human genome. There are many difficulties such as the human biochemistry of several so-called essential elements is not well understood, and it is not clear how we should classify elements that are involved in the destruction of invading microorganisms, or elements which are essential for microorganisms with which we live in symbiosis. In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry. Today, the biological periodic table is in a position somewhat similar to Mendeleev's chemical periodic table of 1869: there are gaps and we need to do more research to fill them. The periodic table also offers potential for novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents, based on not only essential elements, but also non-essential elements, and on radionuclides. Although the potential for inorganic chemistry in medicine was realized more than 2000 years ago, this area of research is still in its infancy. Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism. Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed.

No MeSH data available.


The 99mTcI complex used for SPECT (γ-ray) imaging of heart muscle. The complex was discovered in the laboratory of Alan Davison at MIT.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4342972&req=5

RSTA20140182F13: The 99mTcI complex used for SPECT (γ-ray) imaging of heart muscle. The complex was discovered in the laboratory of Alan Davison at MIT.

Mentions: Technetium (Z=43) is man-made, dating back to 1937. The metastable radioisotope 99mTc, a γ-emitter with half-life of 6 h, is used in tens of millions of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) diagnostic procedures every year. It is readily generated at the bedside from the longer lived isotope 99Mo. More than 50 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals are currently in use for imaging and functional studies of various areas of the body, including bone, the brain, thyroid, lungs, myocardium and liver [159]. The ligands play a crucial role in the targeting properties of the complexes, e.g. phosphonate and phosphate complexes for bone. By way of current examples, Cardiolite (99mTc-sestamibi, figure 13) and Neurite (99mTc-disicate) have been approved for folate-receptor positive tumours [160]. 99mTc-MIP-1404 is in clinical phase II trials for prostate cancer imaging [161,162].Figure 13.


The elements of life and medicines.

Chellan P, Sadler PJ - Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (2015)

The 99mTcI complex used for SPECT (γ-ray) imaging of heart muscle. The complex was discovered in the laboratory of Alan Davison at MIT.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4342972&req=5

RSTA20140182F13: The 99mTcI complex used for SPECT (γ-ray) imaging of heart muscle. The complex was discovered in the laboratory of Alan Davison at MIT.
Mentions: Technetium (Z=43) is man-made, dating back to 1937. The metastable radioisotope 99mTc, a γ-emitter with half-life of 6 h, is used in tens of millions of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) diagnostic procedures every year. It is readily generated at the bedside from the longer lived isotope 99Mo. More than 50 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals are currently in use for imaging and functional studies of various areas of the body, including bone, the brain, thyroid, lungs, myocardium and liver [159]. The ligands play a crucial role in the targeting properties of the complexes, e.g. phosphonate and phosphate complexes for bone. By way of current examples, Cardiolite (99mTc-sestamibi, figure 13) and Neurite (99mTc-disicate) have been approved for folate-receptor positive tumours [160]. 99mTc-MIP-1404 is in clinical phase II trials for prostate cancer imaging [161,162].Figure 13.

Bottom Line: In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry.Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism.Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.

ABSTRACT
Which elements are essential for human life? Here we make an element-by-element journey through the periodic table and attempt to assess whether elements are essential or not, and if they are, whether there is a relevant code for them in the human genome. There are many difficulties such as the human biochemistry of several so-called essential elements is not well understood, and it is not clear how we should classify elements that are involved in the destruction of invading microorganisms, or elements which are essential for microorganisms with which we live in symbiosis. In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry. Today, the biological periodic table is in a position somewhat similar to Mendeleev's chemical periodic table of 1869: there are gaps and we need to do more research to fill them. The periodic table also offers potential for novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents, based on not only essential elements, but also non-essential elements, and on radionuclides. Although the potential for inorganic chemistry in medicine was realized more than 2000 years ago, this area of research is still in its infancy. Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism. Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed.

No MeSH data available.