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Associations of sleep disturbance with ADHD: implications for treatment.

Hvolby A - Atten Defic Hyperact Disord (2014)

Bottom Line: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep.Psychostimulant medications are associated with disrupted or disturbed sleep, but also 'paradoxically' calm some patients with ADHD for sleep by alleviating their symptoms.Long-acting formulations may have insufficient duration of action, leading to symptom rebound at bedtime.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychiatry of Southern Denmark, Gl. Vardevej 101, 6715, Esbjerg N, Denmark, allan.hvolby@rsyd.dk.

ABSTRACT
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep. The relationships of ADHD with sleep problems, psychiatric comorbidities and medications are complex and multidirectional. Evidence from published studies comparing sleep in individuals with ADHD with typically developing controls is most concordant for associations of ADHD with: hypopnea/apnea and peripheral limb movements in sleep or nocturnal motricity in polysomnographic studies; increased sleep onset latency and shorter sleep time in actigraphic studies; and bedtime resistance, difficulty with morning awakenings, sleep onset difficulties, sleep-disordered breathing, night awakenings and daytime sleepiness in subjective studies. ADHD is also frequently coincident with sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, peripheral limb movement disorder, restless legs syndrome and circadian-rhythm sleep disorders). Psychostimulant medications are associated with disrupted or disturbed sleep, but also 'paradoxically' calm some patients with ADHD for sleep by alleviating their symptoms. Long-acting formulations may have insufficient duration of action, leading to symptom rebound at bedtime. Current guidelines recommend assessment of sleep disturbance during evaluation of ADHD, and before initiation of pharmacotherapy, with healthy sleep practices the first-line option for addressing sleep problems. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the relationships between ADHD and sleep, and presents a conceptual model of the modes of interaction: ADHD may cause sleep problems as an intrinsic feature of the disorder; sleep problems may cause or mimic ADHD; ADHD and sleep problems may interact, with reciprocal causation and possible involvement of comorbidity; and ADHD and sleep problems may share a common underlying neurological etiology.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Ball blanket. a Plastic balls, diameter 49 mm and b cotton blanket containing 7 kg of balls and measuring 140 × 200 cm
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Fig3: Ball blanket. a Plastic balls, diameter 49 mm and b cotton blanket containing 7 kg of balls and measuring 140 × 200 cm

Mentions: Ball blankets (Fig. 3) are filled with loose balls to stimulate sensory receptors in the skin, muscles and joints, which transmit inhibitory signals to the central nervous system (Hvolby and Bilenberg 2011). In a study in children with ADHD, the use of ball blankets was found to reduce sleep onset latency, the number of awakenings and intra-individual variability in sleep parameters (Hvolby and Bilenberg 2011).Fig. 3


Associations of sleep disturbance with ADHD: implications for treatment.

Hvolby A - Atten Defic Hyperact Disord (2014)

Ball blanket. a Plastic balls, diameter 49 mm and b cotton blanket containing 7 kg of balls and measuring 140 × 200 cm
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4340974&req=5

Fig3: Ball blanket. a Plastic balls, diameter 49 mm and b cotton blanket containing 7 kg of balls and measuring 140 × 200 cm
Mentions: Ball blankets (Fig. 3) are filled with loose balls to stimulate sensory receptors in the skin, muscles and joints, which transmit inhibitory signals to the central nervous system (Hvolby and Bilenberg 2011). In a study in children with ADHD, the use of ball blankets was found to reduce sleep onset latency, the number of awakenings and intra-individual variability in sleep parameters (Hvolby and Bilenberg 2011).Fig. 3

Bottom Line: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep.Psychostimulant medications are associated with disrupted or disturbed sleep, but also 'paradoxically' calm some patients with ADHD for sleep by alleviating their symptoms.Long-acting formulations may have insufficient duration of action, leading to symptom rebound at bedtime.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychiatry of Southern Denmark, Gl. Vardevej 101, 6715, Esbjerg N, Denmark, allan.hvolby@rsyd.dk.

ABSTRACT
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep. The relationships of ADHD with sleep problems, psychiatric comorbidities and medications are complex and multidirectional. Evidence from published studies comparing sleep in individuals with ADHD with typically developing controls is most concordant for associations of ADHD with: hypopnea/apnea and peripheral limb movements in sleep or nocturnal motricity in polysomnographic studies; increased sleep onset latency and shorter sleep time in actigraphic studies; and bedtime resistance, difficulty with morning awakenings, sleep onset difficulties, sleep-disordered breathing, night awakenings and daytime sleepiness in subjective studies. ADHD is also frequently coincident with sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, peripheral limb movement disorder, restless legs syndrome and circadian-rhythm sleep disorders). Psychostimulant medications are associated with disrupted or disturbed sleep, but also 'paradoxically' calm some patients with ADHD for sleep by alleviating their symptoms. Long-acting formulations may have insufficient duration of action, leading to symptom rebound at bedtime. Current guidelines recommend assessment of sleep disturbance during evaluation of ADHD, and before initiation of pharmacotherapy, with healthy sleep practices the first-line option for addressing sleep problems. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the relationships between ADHD and sleep, and presents a conceptual model of the modes of interaction: ADHD may cause sleep problems as an intrinsic feature of the disorder; sleep problems may cause or mimic ADHD; ADHD and sleep problems may interact, with reciprocal causation and possible involvement of comorbidity; and ADHD and sleep problems may share a common underlying neurological etiology.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus