Limits...
Transition of Eocene whales from land to sea: evidence from bone microstructure.

Houssaye A, Tafforeau P, de Muizon C, Gingerich PD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Conversely, hind-limbs in basilosaurids became strongly reduced with no involvement in locomotion but display strong osteosclerosis in the femora.Our study confirms that Remingtonocetidae and Protocetidae were almost exclusively aquatic in locomotion for the taxa sampled, which probably were shallow water suspended swimmers.Basilosaurids display osseous specializations similar to those of modern cetaceans and are considered more active open-sea swimmers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UMR 7179 CNRS/Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Département Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversité, Paris, France; Steinmann Institut für Geologie, Paläontologie und Mineralogie, Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Cetacea are secondarily aquatic amniotes that underwent their land-to-sea transition during the Eocene. Primitive forms, called archaeocetes, include five families with distinct degrees of adaptation to an aquatic life, swimming mode and abilities that remain difficult to estimate. The lifestyle of early cetaceans is investigated by analysis of microanatomical features in postcranial elements of archaeocetes. We document the internal structure of long bones, ribs and vertebrae in fifteen specimens belonging to the three more derived archaeocete families--Remingtonocetidae, Protocetidae, and Basilosauridae--using microtomography and virtual thin-sectioning. This enables us to discuss the osseous specializations observed in these taxa and to comment on their possible swimming behavior. All these taxa display bone mass increase (BMI) in their ribs, which lack an open medullary cavity, and in their femora, whereas their vertebrae are essentially spongious. Humeri and femora show opposite trends in microanatomical specialization in the progressive independence of cetaceans from a terrestrial environment. Humeri change from very compact to spongious, which is in accordance with the progressive loss of propulsive role for the forelimbs, which were used instead for steering and stabilizing. Conversely, hind-limbs in basilosaurids became strongly reduced with no involvement in locomotion but display strong osteosclerosis in the femora. Our study confirms that Remingtonocetidae and Protocetidae were almost exclusively aquatic in locomotion for the taxa sampled, which probably were shallow water suspended swimmers. Basilosaurids display osseous specializations similar to those of modern cetaceans and are considered more active open-sea swimmers. This study highlights the strong need for homologous sections in comparative microanatomical studies, and the importance of combining information from several bones of the same taxon for improved functional interpretation.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Basilosaurid femora virtual sections.A, Proximal right femur of Dorudon atrox UM 97506 (WH-072), longitudinal section in lateral view. B, Distal left femur of female Basilosaurus isis UM 97527 (WH-152), in medial view; C, Proximal left femur of male Basilosaurus isis UM 93231 (WH-132), in medial view. For all sections, anterior is at the left and proximal at the top. In each panel there is a longitudinal partial section on the left and three transverse sections. Scale bars equal 10 mm for longitudinal and 5 mm for transverse sections.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4340927&req=5

pone.0118409.g011: Basilosaurid femora virtual sections.A, Proximal right femur of Dorudon atrox UM 97506 (WH-072), longitudinal section in lateral view. B, Distal left femur of female Basilosaurus isis UM 97527 (WH-152), in medial view; C, Proximal left femur of male Basilosaurus isis UM 93231 (WH-132), in medial view. For all sections, anterior is at the left and proximal at the top. In each panel there is a longitudinal partial section on the left and three transverse sections. Scale bars equal 10 mm for longitudinal and 5 mm for transverse sections.

Mentions: The femur of Dorudon is incomplete. Only the proximal shaft is preserved. The most distal part of the fragment, the mid-diaphysis, is extremely compact (CI = 98.8) and consists only of compact bone with a few small cavities in the core of the section (Fig. 11A). Compactness decreases proximally. In the metaphysis, a loose spongiosa occupies half of the section and is surrounded by a rather thick compact cortex (CI = 64.2).


Transition of Eocene whales from land to sea: evidence from bone microstructure.

Houssaye A, Tafforeau P, de Muizon C, Gingerich PD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Basilosaurid femora virtual sections.A, Proximal right femur of Dorudon atrox UM 97506 (WH-072), longitudinal section in lateral view. B, Distal left femur of female Basilosaurus isis UM 97527 (WH-152), in medial view; C, Proximal left femur of male Basilosaurus isis UM 93231 (WH-132), in medial view. For all sections, anterior is at the left and proximal at the top. In each panel there is a longitudinal partial section on the left and three transverse sections. Scale bars equal 10 mm for longitudinal and 5 mm for transverse sections.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4340927&req=5

pone.0118409.g011: Basilosaurid femora virtual sections.A, Proximal right femur of Dorudon atrox UM 97506 (WH-072), longitudinal section in lateral view. B, Distal left femur of female Basilosaurus isis UM 97527 (WH-152), in medial view; C, Proximal left femur of male Basilosaurus isis UM 93231 (WH-132), in medial view. For all sections, anterior is at the left and proximal at the top. In each panel there is a longitudinal partial section on the left and three transverse sections. Scale bars equal 10 mm for longitudinal and 5 mm for transverse sections.
Mentions: The femur of Dorudon is incomplete. Only the proximal shaft is preserved. The most distal part of the fragment, the mid-diaphysis, is extremely compact (CI = 98.8) and consists only of compact bone with a few small cavities in the core of the section (Fig. 11A). Compactness decreases proximally. In the metaphysis, a loose spongiosa occupies half of the section and is surrounded by a rather thick compact cortex (CI = 64.2).

Bottom Line: Conversely, hind-limbs in basilosaurids became strongly reduced with no involvement in locomotion but display strong osteosclerosis in the femora.Our study confirms that Remingtonocetidae and Protocetidae were almost exclusively aquatic in locomotion for the taxa sampled, which probably were shallow water suspended swimmers.Basilosaurids display osseous specializations similar to those of modern cetaceans and are considered more active open-sea swimmers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UMR 7179 CNRS/Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Département Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversité, Paris, France; Steinmann Institut für Geologie, Paläontologie und Mineralogie, Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Cetacea are secondarily aquatic amniotes that underwent their land-to-sea transition during the Eocene. Primitive forms, called archaeocetes, include five families with distinct degrees of adaptation to an aquatic life, swimming mode and abilities that remain difficult to estimate. The lifestyle of early cetaceans is investigated by analysis of microanatomical features in postcranial elements of archaeocetes. We document the internal structure of long bones, ribs and vertebrae in fifteen specimens belonging to the three more derived archaeocete families--Remingtonocetidae, Protocetidae, and Basilosauridae--using microtomography and virtual thin-sectioning. This enables us to discuss the osseous specializations observed in these taxa and to comment on their possible swimming behavior. All these taxa display bone mass increase (BMI) in their ribs, which lack an open medullary cavity, and in their femora, whereas their vertebrae are essentially spongious. Humeri and femora show opposite trends in microanatomical specialization in the progressive independence of cetaceans from a terrestrial environment. Humeri change from very compact to spongious, which is in accordance with the progressive loss of propulsive role for the forelimbs, which were used instead for steering and stabilizing. Conversely, hind-limbs in basilosaurids became strongly reduced with no involvement in locomotion but display strong osteosclerosis in the femora. Our study confirms that Remingtonocetidae and Protocetidae were almost exclusively aquatic in locomotion for the taxa sampled, which probably were shallow water suspended swimmers. Basilosaurids display osseous specializations similar to those of modern cetaceans and are considered more active open-sea swimmers. This study highlights the strong need for homologous sections in comparative microanatomical studies, and the importance of combining information from several bones of the same taxon for improved functional interpretation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus