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Between the Baltic and Danubian Worlds: the genetic affinities of a Middle Neolithic population from central Poland.

Lorkiewicz W, Płoszaj T, Jędrychowska-Dańska K, Żądzińska E, Strapagiel D, Haduch E, Szczepanek A, Grygiel R, Witas HW - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: MtDNA haplogroups were determined in 11 individuals, and four mtDNA macrohaplogroups were found (H, U5, T, and HV0).The overall haplogroup pattern did not deviate from other post-Linear Pottery populations from central Europe, although a complete lack of N1a and the presence of U5a are noteworthy.Estimated phylogenetic pattern suggests significant contribution of the post-Linear BKG communities to the origin of the subsequent Middle Neolithic cultures, such as the TRB.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

ABSTRACT
For a long time, anthropological and genetic research on the Neolithic revolution in Europe was mainly concentrated on the mechanism of agricultural dispersal over different parts of the continent. Recently, attention has shifted towards population processes that occurred after the arrival of the first farmers, transforming the genetically very distinctive early Neolithic Linear Pottery Culture (LBK) and Mesolithic forager populations into present-day Central Europeans. The latest studies indicate that significant changes in this respect took place within the post-Linear Pottery cultures of the Early and Middle Neolithic which were a bridge between the allochthonous LBK and the first indigenous Neolithic culture of north-central Europe--the Funnel Beaker culture (TRB). The paper presents data on mtDNA haplotypes of a Middle Neolithic population dated to 4700/4600-4100/4000 BC belonging to the Brześć Kujawski Group of the Lengyel culture (BKG) from the Kuyavia region in north-central Poland. BKG communities constituted the border of the "Danubian World" in this part of Europe for approx. seven centuries, neighboring foragers of the North European Plain and the southern Baltic basin. MtDNA haplogroups were determined in 11 individuals, and four mtDNA macrohaplogroups were found (H, U5, T, and HV0). The overall haplogroup pattern did not deviate from other post-Linear Pottery populations from central Europe, although a complete lack of N1a and the presence of U5a are noteworthy. Of greatest importance is the observed link between the BKG and the TRB horizon, confirmed by an independent analysis of the craniometric variation of Mesolithic and Neolithic populations inhabiting central Europe. Estimated phylogenetic pattern suggests significant contribution of the post-Linear BKG communities to the origin of the subsequent Middle Neolithic cultures, such as the TRB.

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Affinities between the Mesolithic and Neolithic populations from central Europe based on craniometric data: male (A) and female (B) series.
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pone.0118316.g004: Affinities between the Mesolithic and Neolithic populations from central Europe based on craniometric data: male (A) and female (B) series.

Mentions: Another limitation on the interpretation of the presented results is the absence of comparative data for populations inhabiting regions close to the BKG as this work is the first study of mtDNA lineages of Neolithic populations from the area of present-day Poland. This is not to imply that Neolithic skeletal series are scarce in this region in general. However, most of them were found in excavations carried out a long time ago, which significantly reduces the possibility of obtaining aDNA due to archeological preservation and storage conditions. On the other hand, the literature provides morphological characteristics for most of those series, at least in the form of arithmetic means of traditional metric traits. These data were used here to compare the analyzed BKG with 23 cranial series representing Mesolithic and Neolithic populations from central Europe (S5 Table). The craniometric data consisted of ten standard caliper measurements (S6 Table). The calculations were based on arithmetic means using Euclidean distance adopted as a measure of biological distance. The choice of arithmetic means over individual measurements was dictated by the fact that only such data were available for many of the compared skeletal series. A matrix of Euclidean distances was used to perform Ward clustering separately for male and female series (Fig. 4). As can be seen, the analyzed skeletal series are clearly grouped according to cultural and chronological categories, despite the use of very simple statistical methods. This indicates considerable morphological differences between human populations representing different Mesolithic and Neolithic cultural units. Moreover, the obtained results correspond to the main elements of mtDNA lineage variation in the studied populations (as described in this paper and quoted from the literature). First, LBK populations are clearly distinct and form a cluster irrespective of their local affinities, and second, Middle Neolithic and Late Neolithic populations had a tendency to merge with Mesolithic populations, which is reflected in the increased frequency of hunter-gatherer mtDNA haplotypes in that period, as reported by Brandt et al. [17]. On the other hand, the territorial affinities of the analyzed skeletal series are also visible, as exemplified by the separate cluster formed by populations from the Mittelelbe-Saale region, and especially by female groups. In the case of the BKG, the use of a broader comparative background weakened its affinities with the RSC, while emphasizing its similarity to cultures from the TRB culture complex. Interestingly, also Mesolithic populations are found in clusters with the BKG and TRB. Generally, cranial morphology puts the BKG among cultures which emerged following the end of the Linear Pottery tradition and indicates some contribution of post-Mesolithic populations. The pattern of relationships between the analyzed populations resulting from cranial traits is also important in that it concerns both males and females, in contrast to mtDNA haplogroups, which represent only maternal lineages.


Between the Baltic and Danubian Worlds: the genetic affinities of a Middle Neolithic population from central Poland.

Lorkiewicz W, Płoszaj T, Jędrychowska-Dańska K, Żądzińska E, Strapagiel D, Haduch E, Szczepanek A, Grygiel R, Witas HW - PLoS ONE (2015)

Affinities between the Mesolithic and Neolithic populations from central Europe based on craniometric data: male (A) and female (B) series.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4340919&req=5

pone.0118316.g004: Affinities between the Mesolithic and Neolithic populations from central Europe based on craniometric data: male (A) and female (B) series.
Mentions: Another limitation on the interpretation of the presented results is the absence of comparative data for populations inhabiting regions close to the BKG as this work is the first study of mtDNA lineages of Neolithic populations from the area of present-day Poland. This is not to imply that Neolithic skeletal series are scarce in this region in general. However, most of them were found in excavations carried out a long time ago, which significantly reduces the possibility of obtaining aDNA due to archeological preservation and storage conditions. On the other hand, the literature provides morphological characteristics for most of those series, at least in the form of arithmetic means of traditional metric traits. These data were used here to compare the analyzed BKG with 23 cranial series representing Mesolithic and Neolithic populations from central Europe (S5 Table). The craniometric data consisted of ten standard caliper measurements (S6 Table). The calculations were based on arithmetic means using Euclidean distance adopted as a measure of biological distance. The choice of arithmetic means over individual measurements was dictated by the fact that only such data were available for many of the compared skeletal series. A matrix of Euclidean distances was used to perform Ward clustering separately for male and female series (Fig. 4). As can be seen, the analyzed skeletal series are clearly grouped according to cultural and chronological categories, despite the use of very simple statistical methods. This indicates considerable morphological differences between human populations representing different Mesolithic and Neolithic cultural units. Moreover, the obtained results correspond to the main elements of mtDNA lineage variation in the studied populations (as described in this paper and quoted from the literature). First, LBK populations are clearly distinct and form a cluster irrespective of their local affinities, and second, Middle Neolithic and Late Neolithic populations had a tendency to merge with Mesolithic populations, which is reflected in the increased frequency of hunter-gatherer mtDNA haplotypes in that period, as reported by Brandt et al. [17]. On the other hand, the territorial affinities of the analyzed skeletal series are also visible, as exemplified by the separate cluster formed by populations from the Mittelelbe-Saale region, and especially by female groups. In the case of the BKG, the use of a broader comparative background weakened its affinities with the RSC, while emphasizing its similarity to cultures from the TRB culture complex. Interestingly, also Mesolithic populations are found in clusters with the BKG and TRB. Generally, cranial morphology puts the BKG among cultures which emerged following the end of the Linear Pottery tradition and indicates some contribution of post-Mesolithic populations. The pattern of relationships between the analyzed populations resulting from cranial traits is also important in that it concerns both males and females, in contrast to mtDNA haplogroups, which represent only maternal lineages.

Bottom Line: MtDNA haplogroups were determined in 11 individuals, and four mtDNA macrohaplogroups were found (H, U5, T, and HV0).The overall haplogroup pattern did not deviate from other post-Linear Pottery populations from central Europe, although a complete lack of N1a and the presence of U5a are noteworthy.Estimated phylogenetic pattern suggests significant contribution of the post-Linear BKG communities to the origin of the subsequent Middle Neolithic cultures, such as the TRB.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

ABSTRACT
For a long time, anthropological and genetic research on the Neolithic revolution in Europe was mainly concentrated on the mechanism of agricultural dispersal over different parts of the continent. Recently, attention has shifted towards population processes that occurred after the arrival of the first farmers, transforming the genetically very distinctive early Neolithic Linear Pottery Culture (LBK) and Mesolithic forager populations into present-day Central Europeans. The latest studies indicate that significant changes in this respect took place within the post-Linear Pottery cultures of the Early and Middle Neolithic which were a bridge between the allochthonous LBK and the first indigenous Neolithic culture of north-central Europe--the Funnel Beaker culture (TRB). The paper presents data on mtDNA haplotypes of a Middle Neolithic population dated to 4700/4600-4100/4000 BC belonging to the Brześć Kujawski Group of the Lengyel culture (BKG) from the Kuyavia region in north-central Poland. BKG communities constituted the border of the "Danubian World" in this part of Europe for approx. seven centuries, neighboring foragers of the North European Plain and the southern Baltic basin. MtDNA haplogroups were determined in 11 individuals, and four mtDNA macrohaplogroups were found (H, U5, T, and HV0). The overall haplogroup pattern did not deviate from other post-Linear Pottery populations from central Europe, although a complete lack of N1a and the presence of U5a are noteworthy. Of greatest importance is the observed link between the BKG and the TRB horizon, confirmed by an independent analysis of the craniometric variation of Mesolithic and Neolithic populations inhabiting central Europe. Estimated phylogenetic pattern suggests significant contribution of the post-Linear BKG communities to the origin of the subsequent Middle Neolithic cultures, such as the TRB.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus