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The 'Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure' (MACE) scale for the retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect during development.

Teicher MH, Parigger A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders.Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test.Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America; Developmental Biopsychiatry Research Program, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings) during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced) with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE). However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES) that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X) with several additional items plus spreadsheets and R code for scoring are provided to facilitate use and to spur further development.

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Test-retest Reliability.Bland and Altman analysis of reliability / reproducibility of test—retest scores. Red line indicates the mean difference between test and retest scores, which is close to zero. Horizontal lines indicate confidence intervals showing that test-retest difference scores fall within ± 2 points.
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pone.0117423.g003: Test-retest Reliability.Bland and Altman analysis of reliability / reproducibility of test—retest scores. Red line indicates the mean difference between test and retest scores, which is close to zero. Horizontal lines indicate confidence intervals showing that test-retest difference scores fall within ± 2 points.

Mentions: Further, as seen in Fig. 3, total MACE Multiplicity met strict Bland & Altman criteria [79] for test-retest reproducibility, as there was no significant differences in mean scores between test and retest (t74 = -0.26, p = 0.80), and 98.7% of differences scores were within ± 2 SD of the mean difference score, meaning that test-retest MACE Multiplicity scores would rarely (< 2%) differ by more than ± 2 points. Similarly, MACE overall severity scores and MACE severity scores across all ages assessed in combination did not differ in any meaningful way between test and retest (1.3 points and 0.3 points on 100 point scale, respectively) and individual test-retest values fell predominantly (93% and 95%) within ± 2 SD of the mean difference score.


The 'Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure' (MACE) scale for the retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect during development.

Teicher MH, Parigger A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Test-retest Reliability.Bland and Altman analysis of reliability / reproducibility of test—retest scores. Red line indicates the mean difference between test and retest scores, which is close to zero. Horizontal lines indicate confidence intervals showing that test-retest difference scores fall within ± 2 points.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4340880&req=5

pone.0117423.g003: Test-retest Reliability.Bland and Altman analysis of reliability / reproducibility of test—retest scores. Red line indicates the mean difference between test and retest scores, which is close to zero. Horizontal lines indicate confidence intervals showing that test-retest difference scores fall within ± 2 points.
Mentions: Further, as seen in Fig. 3, total MACE Multiplicity met strict Bland & Altman criteria [79] for test-retest reproducibility, as there was no significant differences in mean scores between test and retest (t74 = -0.26, p = 0.80), and 98.7% of differences scores were within ± 2 SD of the mean difference score, meaning that test-retest MACE Multiplicity scores would rarely (< 2%) differ by more than ± 2 points. Similarly, MACE overall severity scores and MACE severity scores across all ages assessed in combination did not differ in any meaningful way between test and retest (1.3 points and 0.3 points on 100 point scale, respectively) and individual test-retest values fell predominantly (93% and 95%) within ± 2 SD of the mean difference score.

Bottom Line: There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders.Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test.Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America; Developmental Biopsychiatry Research Program, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings) during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced) with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE). However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES) that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X) with several additional items plus spreadsheets and R code for scoring are provided to facilitate use and to spur further development.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus