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The 'Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure' (MACE) scale for the retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect during development.

Teicher MH, Parigger A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders.Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test.Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America; Developmental Biopsychiatry Research Program, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings) during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced) with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE). However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES) that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X) with several additional items plus spreadsheets and R code for scoring are provided to facilitate use and to spur further development.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Emotional Neglect.Rasch analysis of emotional neglect subscale showing item characteristic curve, item information curve and test information function.
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pone.0117423.g002: Emotional Neglect.Rasch analysis of emotional neglect subscale showing item characteristic curve, item information curve and test information function.

Mentions: Emotional Neglect. Nine items were considered for inclusion in this scale. Items with excessively high mean square fits were eliminated in turn to produce a five-item scale that fit the model, with three of the items reverse scored (item numbers 42, 43, 52 on the MACE). Final items and fit statistics are provided in Table 2. Eliminated items included unavailability of mother and unavailability of father for enumerated good reasons, plus “people in your family felt close” (reverse scored) and “one or more individuals in your family would help you with your homework, or to get ready for school” (reverse scored). Mean square fit statistics for the final collection were acceptable and ranged from 0.74–1.13. Fig. 2 shows the Item Characteristic Curves (ICC), Item Fit Curves (IFC) and Test Information Function for the emotional neglect Rasch scale. The items covered the latent trait from logit scores of-3.2 (no items selected) to 3.3 (all items selected). The Test Information Function indicated that the scale was most informative between logit scores of 2–4.


The 'Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure' (MACE) scale for the retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect during development.

Teicher MH, Parigger A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Emotional Neglect.Rasch analysis of emotional neglect subscale showing item characteristic curve, item information curve and test information function.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4340880&req=5

pone.0117423.g002: Emotional Neglect.Rasch analysis of emotional neglect subscale showing item characteristic curve, item information curve and test information function.
Mentions: Emotional Neglect. Nine items were considered for inclusion in this scale. Items with excessively high mean square fits were eliminated in turn to produce a five-item scale that fit the model, with three of the items reverse scored (item numbers 42, 43, 52 on the MACE). Final items and fit statistics are provided in Table 2. Eliminated items included unavailability of mother and unavailability of father for enumerated good reasons, plus “people in your family felt close” (reverse scored) and “one or more individuals in your family would help you with your homework, or to get ready for school” (reverse scored). Mean square fit statistics for the final collection were acceptable and ranged from 0.74–1.13. Fig. 2 shows the Item Characteristic Curves (ICC), Item Fit Curves (IFC) and Test Information Function for the emotional neglect Rasch scale. The items covered the latent trait from logit scores of-3.2 (no items selected) to 3.3 (all items selected). The Test Information Function indicated that the scale was most informative between logit scores of 2–4.

Bottom Line: There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders.Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test.Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America; Developmental Biopsychiatry Research Program, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings) during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced) with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE). However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES) that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X) with several additional items plus spreadsheets and R code for scoring are provided to facilitate use and to spur further development.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus