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A review of Shamosuchus and Paralligator (Crocodyliformes, Neosuchia) from the Cretaceous of Asia.

Turner AH - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Rugosuchus and Batrachomimus are sister taxa to Paralligator.Paralligatoridae is closely related to Theriosuchus, hylaeochampsids and a speciose Allodaposuchus clade, which together are the sister group of Borealosuchus plus Crocodylia.These results support the presence of a diverse clade in eastern Asia and western North America throughout the Cretaceous with origins in the Late Jurassic.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The crocodyliform Shamosuchus is known from numerous Late Cretaceous localities in southern and eastern Mongolia and fragmentary remains from Uzbekistan. Seven species of Shamosuchus have been named from six localities in Mongolia and three in Uzbekistan. Six species originally described as Paralligator were later referred to Shamosuchus. Only the type species, Shamosuchus djadochtaensis has been examined in detail. Many of the named species of Shamosuchus show striking similarity in size and cranial morphology but most are based on partial remains suggesting that the true species diversity is overestimated. A review of all species referred to Shamosuchus recognizes three valid taxa: Shamosuchus djadochtaensis, S. gradilifrons, and S. major. Shamosuchus sungaricus, S. borealis, and S. karakalpakensis are nomena dubia, whereas S. ancestralis, S. ulgicus, S. tersus, and S. ulanicus are junior subjective synonyms of S. gradilifrons. Phylogenetic analysis of 318 phenotypic characters recovers a Paralligatoridae clade consisting of Shamosuchus, Rugosuchus, Batrachomimus, Glen Rose Form, and Wannchampsus. Shamosuchus is non-monophyletic: S. djadochtaensis is near the base of Paralligatoridae whereas S. gradilifrons + S. major are the most deeply nested. The name Paralligator is resurrected for this clade. Rugosuchus and Batrachomimus are sister taxa to Paralligator. Paralligatoridae is closely related to Theriosuchus, hylaeochampsids and a speciose Allodaposuchus clade, which together are the sister group of Borealosuchus plus Crocodylia. These results support the presence of a diverse clade in eastern Asia and western North America throughout the Cretaceous with origins in the Late Jurassic.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Skull morphology in Paralligatoridae.A, Shamosuchus ulanicus (= Paralligator gradilifrons) (PIN 3140-502), dorsal view; B, S. ancestralis, (= Paralligator gradilifrons) (PIN 551-29/1), dorsal view; C, S. ancestralis, (= Paralligator gradilifrons) (PIN 551-29/1), left lateral view.
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pone.0118116.g007: Skull morphology in Paralligatoridae.A, Shamosuchus ulanicus (= Paralligator gradilifrons) (PIN 3140-502), dorsal view; B, S. ancestralis, (= Paralligator gradilifrons) (PIN 551-29/1), dorsal view; C, S. ancestralis, (= Paralligator gradilifrons) (PIN 551-29/1), left lateral view.

Mentions: While at the time this suite of morphologies distinguished S. gradilifrons from S. djadochtaensis, it did little to distinguish it from the much less complete S. ancestralis, which Konzhukova described in the same paper. In fact, a well-developed preorbital ridge (Figs. 6A and 7) appears widespread among Shamosuchus and closely related neosuchians (e.g., Rugosuchus, Glen Rose Form, Wannchampsus, Theriosuchus) as well as some goniopholidids. Indeed, pre-orbital ridges are also common among alligatoroids and a few crocodyloids. The “spectacle” of the spectacled caiman is the pre-orbital ridge. Likewise a midline frontal ridge appears more widespread among neosuchians.


A review of Shamosuchus and Paralligator (Crocodyliformes, Neosuchia) from the Cretaceous of Asia.

Turner AH - PLoS ONE (2015)

Skull morphology in Paralligatoridae.A, Shamosuchus ulanicus (= Paralligator gradilifrons) (PIN 3140-502), dorsal view; B, S. ancestralis, (= Paralligator gradilifrons) (PIN 551-29/1), dorsal view; C, S. ancestralis, (= Paralligator gradilifrons) (PIN 551-29/1), left lateral view.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4340866&req=5

pone.0118116.g007: Skull morphology in Paralligatoridae.A, Shamosuchus ulanicus (= Paralligator gradilifrons) (PIN 3140-502), dorsal view; B, S. ancestralis, (= Paralligator gradilifrons) (PIN 551-29/1), dorsal view; C, S. ancestralis, (= Paralligator gradilifrons) (PIN 551-29/1), left lateral view.
Mentions: While at the time this suite of morphologies distinguished S. gradilifrons from S. djadochtaensis, it did little to distinguish it from the much less complete S. ancestralis, which Konzhukova described in the same paper. In fact, a well-developed preorbital ridge (Figs. 6A and 7) appears widespread among Shamosuchus and closely related neosuchians (e.g., Rugosuchus, Glen Rose Form, Wannchampsus, Theriosuchus) as well as some goniopholidids. Indeed, pre-orbital ridges are also common among alligatoroids and a few crocodyloids. The “spectacle” of the spectacled caiman is the pre-orbital ridge. Likewise a midline frontal ridge appears more widespread among neosuchians.

Bottom Line: Rugosuchus and Batrachomimus are sister taxa to Paralligator.Paralligatoridae is closely related to Theriosuchus, hylaeochampsids and a speciose Allodaposuchus clade, which together are the sister group of Borealosuchus plus Crocodylia.These results support the presence of a diverse clade in eastern Asia and western North America throughout the Cretaceous with origins in the Late Jurassic.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The crocodyliform Shamosuchus is known from numerous Late Cretaceous localities in southern and eastern Mongolia and fragmentary remains from Uzbekistan. Seven species of Shamosuchus have been named from six localities in Mongolia and three in Uzbekistan. Six species originally described as Paralligator were later referred to Shamosuchus. Only the type species, Shamosuchus djadochtaensis has been examined in detail. Many of the named species of Shamosuchus show striking similarity in size and cranial morphology but most are based on partial remains suggesting that the true species diversity is overestimated. A review of all species referred to Shamosuchus recognizes three valid taxa: Shamosuchus djadochtaensis, S. gradilifrons, and S. major. Shamosuchus sungaricus, S. borealis, and S. karakalpakensis are nomena dubia, whereas S. ancestralis, S. ulgicus, S. tersus, and S. ulanicus are junior subjective synonyms of S. gradilifrons. Phylogenetic analysis of 318 phenotypic characters recovers a Paralligatoridae clade consisting of Shamosuchus, Rugosuchus, Batrachomimus, Glen Rose Form, and Wannchampsus. Shamosuchus is non-monophyletic: S. djadochtaensis is near the base of Paralligatoridae whereas S. gradilifrons + S. major are the most deeply nested. The name Paralligator is resurrected for this clade. Rugosuchus and Batrachomimus are sister taxa to Paralligator. Paralligatoridae is closely related to Theriosuchus, hylaeochampsids and a speciose Allodaposuchus clade, which together are the sister group of Borealosuchus plus Crocodylia. These results support the presence of a diverse clade in eastern Asia and western North America throughout the Cretaceous with origins in the Late Jurassic.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus