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The F-box protein MAX2 contributes to resistance to bacterial phytopathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Piisilä M, Keceli MA, Brader G, Jakobson L, Jõesaar I, Sipari N, Kollist H, Palva ET, Kariola T - BMC Plant Biol. (2015)

Bottom Line: Interestingly, max2 mutant plants showed increased susceptibility to the bacterial necrotroph Pectobacterium carotovorum as well as to the hemi-biotroph Pseudomonas syringae but not to the fungal necrotroph Botrytis cinerea. max2 mutant phenotype was associated with constitutively increased stomatal conductance and decreased tolerance to apoplastic ROS but also with alterations in hormonal balance.We conclude that the increased susceptibility to P. syringae and P. carotovorum is due to increased stomatal conductance in max2 mutants promoting pathogen entry into the plant apoplast.Additional factors contributing to pathogen susceptibility in max2 plants include decreased tolerance to pathogen-triggered apoplastic ROS and alterations in hormonal signaling.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2) has previously been characterized for its role in plant development. MAX2 appears essential for the perception of the newly characterized phytohormone strigolactone, a negative regulator of polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis.

Results: A reverse genetic screen for F-box protein mutants altered in their stress responses identified MAX2 as a component of plant defense. Here we show that MAX2 contributes to plant resistance against pathogenic bacteria. Interestingly, max2 mutant plants showed increased susceptibility to the bacterial necrotroph Pectobacterium carotovorum as well as to the hemi-biotroph Pseudomonas syringae but not to the fungal necrotroph Botrytis cinerea. max2 mutant phenotype was associated with constitutively increased stomatal conductance and decreased tolerance to apoplastic ROS but also with alterations in hormonal balance.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that MAX2 previously characterized for its role in regulation of polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis, and thus plant development also significantly influences plant disease resistance. We conclude that the increased susceptibility to P. syringae and P. carotovorum is due to increased stomatal conductance in max2 mutants promoting pathogen entry into the plant apoplast. Additional factors contributing to pathogen susceptibility in max2 plants include decreased tolerance to pathogen-triggered apoplastic ROS and alterations in hormonal signaling.

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Altered phytohormone levels in Col-0 andmax2mutant lines. Hormone levels in max2 mutant plants were measured in response to both drought (excised leaves) for ABA and pathogen infection (P. syringae DC3000) for SA. The results shown are representative of both max2 mutant lines. A) ABA levels of max2 mutant plants in response to drought. The values are means ± SE of 2 independent experiments with 3 biological repeats in each experiment. Asterisks indicate significant differences, as determined by Student’s t-test (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; two-tailed t test). B) The leaves of 4-week old Col-0 and max2 mutant plants were inoculated with P. syringae and collected for analysis of SA level. The values are means ± SE of 2 independent experiments with 3 biological repeats in each experiment. Asterisks indicate significant differences, as determined by Student’s t- test (*P < 0.05; two-tailed t test).
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Fig9: Altered phytohormone levels in Col-0 andmax2mutant lines. Hormone levels in max2 mutant plants were measured in response to both drought (excised leaves) for ABA and pathogen infection (P. syringae DC3000) for SA. The results shown are representative of both max2 mutant lines. A) ABA levels of max2 mutant plants in response to drought. The values are means ± SE of 2 independent experiments with 3 biological repeats in each experiment. Asterisks indicate significant differences, as determined by Student’s t-test (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; two-tailed t test). B) The leaves of 4-week old Col-0 and max2 mutant plants were inoculated with P. syringae and collected for analysis of SA level. The values are means ± SE of 2 independent experiments with 3 biological repeats in each experiment. Asterisks indicate significant differences, as determined by Student’s t- test (*P < 0.05; two-tailed t test).

Mentions: To correlate the changes seen in stomatal phenotype and susceptibility to pathogens with possible alterations in endogenous hormone levels of max2, we measured the accumulation of ABA and SA (i) in non-stressed growth conditions, (ii) ABA-level after the leaves were excised and left to dry and (iii) (Figure 9A) and SA-level after P. syringae infection (Figure 9B). Interestingly, ABA levels in the max2 mutant plants were higher already 30 min after excising the leaves and remained higher than in the leaves of wild-type plants until 4 h reflecting the increased water loss of max2 plants (Figure 3A).Figure 9


The F-box protein MAX2 contributes to resistance to bacterial phytopathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Piisilä M, Keceli MA, Brader G, Jakobson L, Jõesaar I, Sipari N, Kollist H, Palva ET, Kariola T - BMC Plant Biol. (2015)

Altered phytohormone levels in Col-0 andmax2mutant lines. Hormone levels in max2 mutant plants were measured in response to both drought (excised leaves) for ABA and pathogen infection (P. syringae DC3000) for SA. The results shown are representative of both max2 mutant lines. A) ABA levels of max2 mutant plants in response to drought. The values are means ± SE of 2 independent experiments with 3 biological repeats in each experiment. Asterisks indicate significant differences, as determined by Student’s t-test (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; two-tailed t test). B) The leaves of 4-week old Col-0 and max2 mutant plants were inoculated with P. syringae and collected for analysis of SA level. The values are means ± SE of 2 independent experiments with 3 biological repeats in each experiment. Asterisks indicate significant differences, as determined by Student’s t- test (*P < 0.05; two-tailed t test).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4340836&req=5

Fig9: Altered phytohormone levels in Col-0 andmax2mutant lines. Hormone levels in max2 mutant plants were measured in response to both drought (excised leaves) for ABA and pathogen infection (P. syringae DC3000) for SA. The results shown are representative of both max2 mutant lines. A) ABA levels of max2 mutant plants in response to drought. The values are means ± SE of 2 independent experiments with 3 biological repeats in each experiment. Asterisks indicate significant differences, as determined by Student’s t-test (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; two-tailed t test). B) The leaves of 4-week old Col-0 and max2 mutant plants were inoculated with P. syringae and collected for analysis of SA level. The values are means ± SE of 2 independent experiments with 3 biological repeats in each experiment. Asterisks indicate significant differences, as determined by Student’s t- test (*P < 0.05; two-tailed t test).
Mentions: To correlate the changes seen in stomatal phenotype and susceptibility to pathogens with possible alterations in endogenous hormone levels of max2, we measured the accumulation of ABA and SA (i) in non-stressed growth conditions, (ii) ABA-level after the leaves were excised and left to dry and (iii) (Figure 9A) and SA-level after P. syringae infection (Figure 9B). Interestingly, ABA levels in the max2 mutant plants were higher already 30 min after excising the leaves and remained higher than in the leaves of wild-type plants until 4 h reflecting the increased water loss of max2 plants (Figure 3A).Figure 9

Bottom Line: Interestingly, max2 mutant plants showed increased susceptibility to the bacterial necrotroph Pectobacterium carotovorum as well as to the hemi-biotroph Pseudomonas syringae but not to the fungal necrotroph Botrytis cinerea. max2 mutant phenotype was associated with constitutively increased stomatal conductance and decreased tolerance to apoplastic ROS but also with alterations in hormonal balance.We conclude that the increased susceptibility to P. syringae and P. carotovorum is due to increased stomatal conductance in max2 mutants promoting pathogen entry into the plant apoplast.Additional factors contributing to pathogen susceptibility in max2 plants include decreased tolerance to pathogen-triggered apoplastic ROS and alterations in hormonal signaling.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2) has previously been characterized for its role in plant development. MAX2 appears essential for the perception of the newly characterized phytohormone strigolactone, a negative regulator of polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis.

Results: A reverse genetic screen for F-box protein mutants altered in their stress responses identified MAX2 as a component of plant defense. Here we show that MAX2 contributes to plant resistance against pathogenic bacteria. Interestingly, max2 mutant plants showed increased susceptibility to the bacterial necrotroph Pectobacterium carotovorum as well as to the hemi-biotroph Pseudomonas syringae but not to the fungal necrotroph Botrytis cinerea. max2 mutant phenotype was associated with constitutively increased stomatal conductance and decreased tolerance to apoplastic ROS but also with alterations in hormonal balance.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that MAX2 previously characterized for its role in regulation of polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis, and thus plant development also significantly influences plant disease resistance. We conclude that the increased susceptibility to P. syringae and P. carotovorum is due to increased stomatal conductance in max2 mutants promoting pathogen entry into the plant apoplast. Additional factors contributing to pathogen susceptibility in max2 plants include decreased tolerance to pathogen-triggered apoplastic ROS and alterations in hormonal signaling.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus