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Molecular epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria among Duffy-positive and Duffy-negative populations in Ethiopia.

Lo E, Yewhalaw D, Zhong D, Zemene E, Degefa T, Tushune K, Ha M, Lee MC, James AA, Yan G - Malar. J. (2015)

Bottom Line: Parasite gene copy number was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic samples, as well as between children/adolescents and adults from the local community.The prevalence of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria is the highest in children compared to adolescents and adults.Samples from asymptomatic individuals show a significantly lower parasite gene copy number than those from symptomatic infections for P. vivax and P. falciparum.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Program in Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA. eugenia.loyy@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Malaria is the most prevalent communicable disease in Ethiopia, with 75% of the country's landmass classified as endemic for malaria. Accurate information on the distribution and clinical prevalence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in endemic areas, as well as in Duffy-negative populations, is essential to develop integrated control strategies.

Methods: A total of 390 and 416 community and clinical samples, respectively, representing different localities and age groups across Ethiopia were examined. Malaria prevalence was estimated using nested PCR of the 18S rRNA region. Parasite gene copy number was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic samples, as well as between children/adolescents and adults from the local community. An approximately 500-bp segment of the human DARC gene was amplified and sequenced to identify Duffy genotype at the -33rd nucleotide position for all the clinical and community samples.

Results: Plasmodium vivax prevalence was higher in the south while P. falciparum was higher in the north. The prevalence of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria is the highest in children compared to adolescents and adults. Four P. vivax infections were detected among the Duffy-negative samples. Samples from asymptomatic individuals show a significantly lower parasite gene copy number than those from symptomatic infections for P. vivax and P. falciparum.

Conclusions: Geographical and age differences influence the distribution of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria in Ethiopia. These findings offer evidence-based guidelines in targeting malaria control efforts in the country.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Map showing the geographical distribution of the sample sites in Ethiopia. Community samples were collected in Asendabo and clinical samples were collected in the other six sites.
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Fig1: Map showing the geographical distribution of the sample sites in Ethiopia. Community samples were collected in Asendabo and clinical samples were collected in the other six sites.

Mentions: Clinical and community samples from six different localities across Ethiopia were collected to determine malaria prevalence (Figure 1). Finger-prick blood samples were collected from a total of 416 malaria symptomatic or febrile patients visiting the health centres or hospitals at each of the localities (ranging from 41–125 patients per locality; Table 1). In addition, blood samples were collected from 390 asymptomatic individuals representing the younger age group, children and adolescents of age under 18 (n = 200), and the older age group, adults of age 18 or above (n = 190) from local communities of the Asendabo town (Figure 1). A total of three to four spots of blood, equivalent to ~50 μl, from each individual were blotted on Whatman 3MM filter paper. Parasite DNA was extracted from dried blood spots by the Saponin/Chelex method [28] and genomic DNA was eluted in a total volume of 200 μl TE buffer.Figure 1


Molecular epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria among Duffy-positive and Duffy-negative populations in Ethiopia.

Lo E, Yewhalaw D, Zhong D, Zemene E, Degefa T, Tushune K, Ha M, Lee MC, James AA, Yan G - Malar. J. (2015)

Map showing the geographical distribution of the sample sites in Ethiopia. Community samples were collected in Asendabo and clinical samples were collected in the other six sites.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4340780&req=5

Fig1: Map showing the geographical distribution of the sample sites in Ethiopia. Community samples were collected in Asendabo and clinical samples were collected in the other six sites.
Mentions: Clinical and community samples from six different localities across Ethiopia were collected to determine malaria prevalence (Figure 1). Finger-prick blood samples were collected from a total of 416 malaria symptomatic or febrile patients visiting the health centres or hospitals at each of the localities (ranging from 41–125 patients per locality; Table 1). In addition, blood samples were collected from 390 asymptomatic individuals representing the younger age group, children and adolescents of age under 18 (n = 200), and the older age group, adults of age 18 or above (n = 190) from local communities of the Asendabo town (Figure 1). A total of three to four spots of blood, equivalent to ~50 μl, from each individual were blotted on Whatman 3MM filter paper. Parasite DNA was extracted from dried blood spots by the Saponin/Chelex method [28] and genomic DNA was eluted in a total volume of 200 μl TE buffer.Figure 1

Bottom Line: Parasite gene copy number was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic samples, as well as between children/adolescents and adults from the local community.The prevalence of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria is the highest in children compared to adolescents and adults.Samples from asymptomatic individuals show a significantly lower parasite gene copy number than those from symptomatic infections for P. vivax and P. falciparum.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Program in Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA. eugenia.loyy@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Malaria is the most prevalent communicable disease in Ethiopia, with 75% of the country's landmass classified as endemic for malaria. Accurate information on the distribution and clinical prevalence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in endemic areas, as well as in Duffy-negative populations, is essential to develop integrated control strategies.

Methods: A total of 390 and 416 community and clinical samples, respectively, representing different localities and age groups across Ethiopia were examined. Malaria prevalence was estimated using nested PCR of the 18S rRNA region. Parasite gene copy number was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic samples, as well as between children/adolescents and adults from the local community. An approximately 500-bp segment of the human DARC gene was amplified and sequenced to identify Duffy genotype at the -33rd nucleotide position for all the clinical and community samples.

Results: Plasmodium vivax prevalence was higher in the south while P. falciparum was higher in the north. The prevalence of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria is the highest in children compared to adolescents and adults. Four P. vivax infections were detected among the Duffy-negative samples. Samples from asymptomatic individuals show a significantly lower parasite gene copy number than those from symptomatic infections for P. vivax and P. falciparum.

Conclusions: Geographical and age differences influence the distribution of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria in Ethiopia. These findings offer evidence-based guidelines in targeting malaria control efforts in the country.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus