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Female family caregivers face a higher risk of hypertension and lowered estimated glomerular filtration rates: a cross-sectional, comparative study.

Torimoto-Sasai Y, Igarashi A, Wada T, Ogata Y, Yamamoto-Mitani N - BMC Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: The prevalence of high blood pressure was significantly higher among caregivers than non-caregivers (male: 72.7% among caregivers vs. 40.9% among non-caregivers, female: 57.1% vs. 27.6%, respectively).After adjusting for related sociodemographic and health factors, high blood pressure remained significantly more prevalent among caregivers than non-caregivers, only among female (adjusted OR=2.16, 95% CI [1.14, 4.08]).No significant differences were observed between the two groups on any other indicators.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519, Japan. torimoto@dia.or.jp.

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite societal efforts to alleviate the challenges, caregiving seems to constitute a substantial burden and source of stress for many families of older adults in Japan. However, precise information on the physical health of caregivers, based on objective data, is not available. The purpose of this study was to improve the understanding of the physical health of Japanese family caregivers using objective indicators and a comparative research design.

Methods: A cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted among family caregivers and their non-caregiver counterparts. Surveyors visited caregivers in their homes to administer a questionnaire survey, measure their blood pressure, and collect blood samples using a kit. Blood samples were tested for LDL-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, AST, ALT, γ-GTP, uric acid, creatinine and HbA1c. Non-caregiver data were collected at a university-based health checkup center. We compared 149 caregivers with 149 sex- and age-matched non-caregivers using conditional logistic regression analyses to examine the impact of caregiving, adjusting for multiple control variables. Analyses were conducted separately for men and female.

Results: The prevalence of high blood pressure was significantly higher among caregivers than non-caregivers (male: 72.7% among caregivers vs. 40.9% among non-caregivers, female: 57.1% vs. 27.6%, respectively). After adjusting for related sociodemographic and health factors, high blood pressure remained significantly more prevalent among caregivers than non-caregivers, only among female (adjusted OR=2.16, 95% CI [1.14, 4.08]). Female caregivers showed lower eGFR than their non-caregiver counterparts (adjusted OR=6.54, 95% CI [2.38, 17.91]). No significant differences were observed between the two groups on any other indicators.

Conclusions: Results suggest that female caregivers are at a higher risk of conditions such as cerebral, cardiovascular or kidney diseases than non-caregivers. Steps must be taken to identify caregivers with high blood pressure and lowered eGFR and provide them with the support they need before these risk factors develop into serious diseases.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Conceptual framework.
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Fig1: Conceptual framework.

Mentions: A cross-sectional, comparative study based on a conceptual model (Figure 1) was conducted among family caregivers and their non-caregiver counterparts. While each individual’s health is affected by factors such as demographics, health behaviors, and his or her own physical or mental health conditions, we also assumed that caregiving has a significant association on the health of the caregiver. Therefore, we compared health outcome data between family caregivers and non-caregivers counterparts, while adjusting for a variety of other possible factors affecting health outcomes.Figure 1


Female family caregivers face a higher risk of hypertension and lowered estimated glomerular filtration rates: a cross-sectional, comparative study.

Torimoto-Sasai Y, Igarashi A, Wada T, Ogata Y, Yamamoto-Mitani N - BMC Public Health (2015)

Conceptual framework.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4340290&req=5

Fig1: Conceptual framework.
Mentions: A cross-sectional, comparative study based on a conceptual model (Figure 1) was conducted among family caregivers and their non-caregiver counterparts. While each individual’s health is affected by factors such as demographics, health behaviors, and his or her own physical or mental health conditions, we also assumed that caregiving has a significant association on the health of the caregiver. Therefore, we compared health outcome data between family caregivers and non-caregivers counterparts, while adjusting for a variety of other possible factors affecting health outcomes.Figure 1

Bottom Line: The prevalence of high blood pressure was significantly higher among caregivers than non-caregivers (male: 72.7% among caregivers vs. 40.9% among non-caregivers, female: 57.1% vs. 27.6%, respectively).After adjusting for related sociodemographic and health factors, high blood pressure remained significantly more prevalent among caregivers than non-caregivers, only among female (adjusted OR=2.16, 95% CI [1.14, 4.08]).No significant differences were observed between the two groups on any other indicators.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519, Japan. torimoto@dia.or.jp.

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite societal efforts to alleviate the challenges, caregiving seems to constitute a substantial burden and source of stress for many families of older adults in Japan. However, precise information on the physical health of caregivers, based on objective data, is not available. The purpose of this study was to improve the understanding of the physical health of Japanese family caregivers using objective indicators and a comparative research design.

Methods: A cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted among family caregivers and their non-caregiver counterparts. Surveyors visited caregivers in their homes to administer a questionnaire survey, measure their blood pressure, and collect blood samples using a kit. Blood samples were tested for LDL-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, AST, ALT, γ-GTP, uric acid, creatinine and HbA1c. Non-caregiver data were collected at a university-based health checkup center. We compared 149 caregivers with 149 sex- and age-matched non-caregivers using conditional logistic regression analyses to examine the impact of caregiving, adjusting for multiple control variables. Analyses were conducted separately for men and female.

Results: The prevalence of high blood pressure was significantly higher among caregivers than non-caregivers (male: 72.7% among caregivers vs. 40.9% among non-caregivers, female: 57.1% vs. 27.6%, respectively). After adjusting for related sociodemographic and health factors, high blood pressure remained significantly more prevalent among caregivers than non-caregivers, only among female (adjusted OR=2.16, 95% CI [1.14, 4.08]). Female caregivers showed lower eGFR than their non-caregiver counterparts (adjusted OR=6.54, 95% CI [2.38, 17.91]). No significant differences were observed between the two groups on any other indicators.

Conclusions: Results suggest that female caregivers are at a higher risk of conditions such as cerebral, cardiovascular or kidney diseases than non-caregivers. Steps must be taken to identify caregivers with high blood pressure and lowered eGFR and provide them with the support they need before these risk factors develop into serious diseases.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus