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Serum interleukin (IL)-15 as a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease.

Bishnoi RJ, Palmer RF, Royall DR - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The results showed that the serum IL-15 level has significant effects on cognition, exclusively mediated by latent construct d and g'.Contrasting directions of association lead us to speculate that IL-15's effects in AD are mediated through functional networks as d scores have been previously found to be specifically related to default mode network (DMN).Our finding warrants the need for further research to determine the changes in structural and functional networks corresponding to serum based biomarkers levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Interleukin (IL-15), a pro-inflammatory cytokine has been studied as a possible marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however its exact role in neuro-inflammation or the pathogenesis AD is not well understood yet. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) approach was used to examine the relationship between serum IL-15 levels and AD in a well characterized AD cohort, the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium (TARCC). Instead of categorical diagnoses, we used two latent construct d (for dementia) and g' (for cognitive impairments not contributing to functional impairments) in our analysis. The results showed that the serum IL-15 level has significant effects on cognition, exclusively mediated by latent construct d and g'. Contrasting directions of association lead us to speculate that IL-15's effects in AD are mediated through functional networks as d scores have been previously found to be specifically related to default mode network (DMN). Our finding warrants the need for further research to determine the changes in structural and functional networks corresponding to serum based biomarkers levels.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

MIMIC Model.All observed variables were adjusted for age, gender, education, ethnicity and geriatric depression scale (GDS) scores (paths not shown for clarity). Abbreviations: BOSTON, Boston Naming Test; CDR-SB, Clinical Dementia Rating scale sum of boxes; COWA, Controlled Oral Word Association Test; DST, Digit Span Test; IL-15, Interleukin-15; MMSE, Mini-Mental Status Examination; Trails A, Trail Making Test A; Trails B, Trail Making Test B. Fit Indices: Chi Square: 85.196 (25); p ≤ 0.001; Comparative Fit Index (CFI): 0.995; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA): 0.035.
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pone.0117282.g002: MIMIC Model.All observed variables were adjusted for age, gender, education, ethnicity and geriatric depression scale (GDS) scores (paths not shown for clarity). Abbreviations: BOSTON, Boston Naming Test; CDR-SB, Clinical Dementia Rating scale sum of boxes; COWA, Controlled Oral Word Association Test; DST, Digit Span Test; IL-15, Interleukin-15; MMSE, Mini-Mental Status Examination; Trails A, Trail Making Test A; Trails B, Trail Making Test B. Fit Indices: Chi Square: 85.196 (25); p ≤ 0.001; Comparative Fit Index (CFI): 0.995; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA): 0.035.

Mentions: All standardized loadings show that they are satisfactory indicators for the latent constructs of cognitive impairments (Fig. 2) (Table 2). Coefficients for the structural paths are interpreted in the same way as regression coefficients. The standardized coefficient value of -.51 for the path from IL-15 to g’ suggests that as serum level of IL-15 rises by one standard deviation, g’ is expected to decrease by .51 standard deviation holding d constant. Similarly, the standardized coefficient value of -.23 for the path from IL-15 to d suggests that with rise of serum level of IL-15 by one standard deviation, d is expected to decrease by .23 standard deviation with g’ held constant.


Serum interleukin (IL)-15 as a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease.

Bishnoi RJ, Palmer RF, Royall DR - PLoS ONE (2015)

MIMIC Model.All observed variables were adjusted for age, gender, education, ethnicity and geriatric depression scale (GDS) scores (paths not shown for clarity). Abbreviations: BOSTON, Boston Naming Test; CDR-SB, Clinical Dementia Rating scale sum of boxes; COWA, Controlled Oral Word Association Test; DST, Digit Span Test; IL-15, Interleukin-15; MMSE, Mini-Mental Status Examination; Trails A, Trail Making Test A; Trails B, Trail Making Test B. Fit Indices: Chi Square: 85.196 (25); p ≤ 0.001; Comparative Fit Index (CFI): 0.995; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA): 0.035.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4339977&req=5

pone.0117282.g002: MIMIC Model.All observed variables were adjusted for age, gender, education, ethnicity and geriatric depression scale (GDS) scores (paths not shown for clarity). Abbreviations: BOSTON, Boston Naming Test; CDR-SB, Clinical Dementia Rating scale sum of boxes; COWA, Controlled Oral Word Association Test; DST, Digit Span Test; IL-15, Interleukin-15; MMSE, Mini-Mental Status Examination; Trails A, Trail Making Test A; Trails B, Trail Making Test B. Fit Indices: Chi Square: 85.196 (25); p ≤ 0.001; Comparative Fit Index (CFI): 0.995; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA): 0.035.
Mentions: All standardized loadings show that they are satisfactory indicators for the latent constructs of cognitive impairments (Fig. 2) (Table 2). Coefficients for the structural paths are interpreted in the same way as regression coefficients. The standardized coefficient value of -.51 for the path from IL-15 to g’ suggests that as serum level of IL-15 rises by one standard deviation, g’ is expected to decrease by .51 standard deviation holding d constant. Similarly, the standardized coefficient value of -.23 for the path from IL-15 to d suggests that with rise of serum level of IL-15 by one standard deviation, d is expected to decrease by .23 standard deviation with g’ held constant.

Bottom Line: The results showed that the serum IL-15 level has significant effects on cognition, exclusively mediated by latent construct d and g'.Contrasting directions of association lead us to speculate that IL-15's effects in AD are mediated through functional networks as d scores have been previously found to be specifically related to default mode network (DMN).Our finding warrants the need for further research to determine the changes in structural and functional networks corresponding to serum based biomarkers levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Interleukin (IL-15), a pro-inflammatory cytokine has been studied as a possible marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however its exact role in neuro-inflammation or the pathogenesis AD is not well understood yet. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) approach was used to examine the relationship between serum IL-15 levels and AD in a well characterized AD cohort, the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium (TARCC). Instead of categorical diagnoses, we used two latent construct d (for dementia) and g' (for cognitive impairments not contributing to functional impairments) in our analysis. The results showed that the serum IL-15 level has significant effects on cognition, exclusively mediated by latent construct d and g'. Contrasting directions of association lead us to speculate that IL-15's effects in AD are mediated through functional networks as d scores have been previously found to be specifically related to default mode network (DMN). Our finding warrants the need for further research to determine the changes in structural and functional networks corresponding to serum based biomarkers levels.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus