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The small molecule fenpropimorph rapidly converts chloroplast membrane lipids to triacylglycerols in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

Kim H, Jang S, Kim S, Yamaoka Y, Hong D, Song WY, Nishida I, Li-Beisson Y, Lee Y - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Microalgae provide a promising platform for biofuel production, because they accumulate high levels of lipids, and do not compete with food or feed sources.Here, we report that the fungicide fenpropimorph rapidly causes high levels of neutral lipids to accumulate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells.Furthermore, the quantity of TAGs present after 1 h of fenpropimorph treatment was over twofold higher than that formed after 9 days of nitrogen starvation in medium with no acetate supplement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Molecular and Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology Pohang, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
Concern about global warming has prompted an intense interest in developing economical methods of producing biofuels. Microalgae provide a promising platform for biofuel production, because they accumulate high levels of lipids, and do not compete with food or feed sources. However, current methods of producing algal oil involve subjecting the microalgae to stress conditions, such as nitrogen deprivation, and are prohibitively expensive. Here, we report that the fungicide fenpropimorph rapidly causes high levels of neutral lipids to accumulate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells. When treated with fenpropimorph (10 μg mL(-1)) for 1 h, Chlamydomonas cells accumulated at least fourfold the amount of triacylglycerols (TAGs) present in the untreated control cells. Furthermore, the quantity of TAGs present after 1 h of fenpropimorph treatment was over twofold higher than that formed after 9 days of nitrogen starvation in medium with no acetate supplement. Biochemical analysis of lipids revealed that the accumulated TAGs were derived mainly from chloroplast polar membrane lipids. Such a conversion of chloroplast polar lipids to TAGs is desirable for biodiesel production, because polar lipids are usually removed during the biodiesel production process. Thus, our data exemplified that a cost and time effective method of producing TAGs is possible using fenpropimorph or similar drugs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Biochemical analysis of TAGs in fenpropimorph-treated C. reinhardtii in late mid-log phase culture in TAP medium (N+, acetate). (A) A comparison of the absolute amount of fatty acids in TAGs isolated from fenpropimorph-treated and control cells. Averages from three replicate experiments are presented. Bars represent SE. Significant differences, as determined by Student’s t-test, are indicated by asterisks (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001). (B) Comparison of fatty acid mol% in TAGs isolated from fenpropimorph-treated cells and control cells. Averages from three replicate experiments are presented. Bars represent SE. Significant differences, as determined by Student’s t-test, are indicated by asterisks (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001).
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Figure 2: Biochemical analysis of TAGs in fenpropimorph-treated C. reinhardtii in late mid-log phase culture in TAP medium (N+, acetate). (A) A comparison of the absolute amount of fatty acids in TAGs isolated from fenpropimorph-treated and control cells. Averages from three replicate experiments are presented. Bars represent SE. Significant differences, as determined by Student’s t-test, are indicated by asterisks (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001). (B) Comparison of fatty acid mol% in TAGs isolated from fenpropimorph-treated cells and control cells. Averages from three replicate experiments are presented. Bars represent SE. Significant differences, as determined by Student’s t-test, are indicated by asterisks (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001).

Mentions: To identify the biosynthetic origin of the fatty acids accumulated in the TAG fraction in fenpropimorph-treated cells, the fatty acid content and composition of the TAG fraction were compared between control and fenpropimorph-treated cells (Figures 2A,B). All fatty acid levels in TAG increased in fenpropimorph-treated cells, but the highest increases were found in 16:4(4,7,10,13) and 18:3(9,12,15) (Figure 2A), the two fatty acids that preferentially occur in plastidial lipids (Giroud et al., 1988; Fan et al., 2011). Fatty acid compositional analysis (mol% values) confirmed the preferential accumulation of plastidial-type fatty acids in TAGs induced by fenpropimorph (Figure 2B). These results suggest that the fatty acids formed in response to fenpropimorph treatment are most likely derived from recycled plastidial lipids.


The small molecule fenpropimorph rapidly converts chloroplast membrane lipids to triacylglycerols in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

Kim H, Jang S, Kim S, Yamaoka Y, Hong D, Song WY, Nishida I, Li-Beisson Y, Lee Y - Front Microbiol (2015)

Biochemical analysis of TAGs in fenpropimorph-treated C. reinhardtii in late mid-log phase culture in TAP medium (N+, acetate). (A) A comparison of the absolute amount of fatty acids in TAGs isolated from fenpropimorph-treated and control cells. Averages from three replicate experiments are presented. Bars represent SE. Significant differences, as determined by Student’s t-test, are indicated by asterisks (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001). (B) Comparison of fatty acid mol% in TAGs isolated from fenpropimorph-treated cells and control cells. Averages from three replicate experiments are presented. Bars represent SE. Significant differences, as determined by Student’s t-test, are indicated by asterisks (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4338789&req=5

Figure 2: Biochemical analysis of TAGs in fenpropimorph-treated C. reinhardtii in late mid-log phase culture in TAP medium (N+, acetate). (A) A comparison of the absolute amount of fatty acids in TAGs isolated from fenpropimorph-treated and control cells. Averages from three replicate experiments are presented. Bars represent SE. Significant differences, as determined by Student’s t-test, are indicated by asterisks (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001). (B) Comparison of fatty acid mol% in TAGs isolated from fenpropimorph-treated cells and control cells. Averages from three replicate experiments are presented. Bars represent SE. Significant differences, as determined by Student’s t-test, are indicated by asterisks (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001).
Mentions: To identify the biosynthetic origin of the fatty acids accumulated in the TAG fraction in fenpropimorph-treated cells, the fatty acid content and composition of the TAG fraction were compared between control and fenpropimorph-treated cells (Figures 2A,B). All fatty acid levels in TAG increased in fenpropimorph-treated cells, but the highest increases were found in 16:4(4,7,10,13) and 18:3(9,12,15) (Figure 2A), the two fatty acids that preferentially occur in plastidial lipids (Giroud et al., 1988; Fan et al., 2011). Fatty acid compositional analysis (mol% values) confirmed the preferential accumulation of plastidial-type fatty acids in TAGs induced by fenpropimorph (Figure 2B). These results suggest that the fatty acids formed in response to fenpropimorph treatment are most likely derived from recycled plastidial lipids.

Bottom Line: Microalgae provide a promising platform for biofuel production, because they accumulate high levels of lipids, and do not compete with food or feed sources.Here, we report that the fungicide fenpropimorph rapidly causes high levels of neutral lipids to accumulate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells.Furthermore, the quantity of TAGs present after 1 h of fenpropimorph treatment was over twofold higher than that formed after 9 days of nitrogen starvation in medium with no acetate supplement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Molecular and Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology Pohang, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
Concern about global warming has prompted an intense interest in developing economical methods of producing biofuels. Microalgae provide a promising platform for biofuel production, because they accumulate high levels of lipids, and do not compete with food or feed sources. However, current methods of producing algal oil involve subjecting the microalgae to stress conditions, such as nitrogen deprivation, and are prohibitively expensive. Here, we report that the fungicide fenpropimorph rapidly causes high levels of neutral lipids to accumulate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells. When treated with fenpropimorph (10 μg mL(-1)) for 1 h, Chlamydomonas cells accumulated at least fourfold the amount of triacylglycerols (TAGs) present in the untreated control cells. Furthermore, the quantity of TAGs present after 1 h of fenpropimorph treatment was over twofold higher than that formed after 9 days of nitrogen starvation in medium with no acetate supplement. Biochemical analysis of lipids revealed that the accumulated TAGs were derived mainly from chloroplast polar membrane lipids. Such a conversion of chloroplast polar lipids to TAGs is desirable for biodiesel production, because polar lipids are usually removed during the biodiesel production process. Thus, our data exemplified that a cost and time effective method of producing TAGs is possible using fenpropimorph or similar drugs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus