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26Al/10Be burial dating of Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin, northern China.

Tu H, Shen G, Li H, Xie F, Granger DE - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Based on biostratigraphical correlation and exploratory results from a variety of dating methods, the site has been widely accepted as early Upper Pleistocene in time.The site is thus younger than 340 ka at 95% confidence, which is at variance with the previous paleomagnetic results.On the other hand, our result suggests an age of older than 140 ka for the site's lower cultural deposits, which is consistent with recent post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IRSL) dating at 160-220 ka.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Geographical Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China.

ABSTRACT
The Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin is among the most important Paleolithic sites in China for having provided a rich collection of hominin and mammalian fossils and lithic artifacts. Based on biostratigraphical correlation and exploratory results from a variety of dating methods, the site has been widely accepted as early Upper Pleistocene in time. However, more recent paleomagnetic analyses assigned a much older age of ∼500 ka (thousand years). This paper reports the application of 26Al/10Be burial dating as an independent check. Two quartz samples from a lower cultural horizon give a weighted mean age of 0.24 ± 0.05 Ma (million years, 1σ). The site is thus younger than 340 ka at 95% confidence, which is at variance with the previous paleomagnetic results. On the other hand, our result suggests an age of older than 140 ka for the site's lower cultural deposits, which is consistent with recent post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IRSL) dating at 160-220 ka.

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Stratigraphy of the Xujiayao-Houjiayao Paleolithic site.(A) Photograph of the cross-section revealed during the excavation in 2012, the lower left inset shows more clearly an unconformity believed to mark the boundary between the third terrace of Liyi River and the underlying Nihewan Formation. (B) Lithostratigraphic column of the cross-section exposed in 2007–2008 (∼1 m shallower than A) with the position of the dating samples and their 26Al/10Be burial dates. (C) Lithostratigraphic column and polarity of the cross-section from where samples for magnetostratigraphic studies were taken (modified from Løvlie et al. [15]), along with the magnetostratigraphic dates [17, 18]. Also given are the U-series dates on fossil teeth [7]. Superscripts on ages indicate the dating methods (B, Burial dating; U, U-series dating on fossils; M, Magnetostratigraphic dating).
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pone.0118315.g002: Stratigraphy of the Xujiayao-Houjiayao Paleolithic site.(A) Photograph of the cross-section revealed during the excavation in 2012, the lower left inset shows more clearly an unconformity believed to mark the boundary between the third terrace of Liyi River and the underlying Nihewan Formation. (B) Lithostratigraphic column of the cross-section exposed in 2007–2008 (∼1 m shallower than A) with the position of the dating samples and their 26Al/10Be burial dates. (C) Lithostratigraphic column and polarity of the cross-section from where samples for magnetostratigraphic studies were taken (modified from Løvlie et al. [15]), along with the magnetostratigraphic dates [17, 18]. Also given are the U-series dates on fossil teeth [7]. Superscripts on ages indicate the dating methods (B, Burial dating; U, U-series dating on fossils; M, Magnetostratigraphic dating).

Mentions: However, further paleomagnetic studies by an international team of Sino-Norwegian scientists challenged the above consensus. Su et al. [14] and Løvlie et al. [15] collected samples with a reduced sampling interval and extended the study section to greater depth. The reversed polarity zone previously recognized by Liu et al. [12] was found to be much thicker (6–12 m), and thus re-assigned to the Matuyama Chron rather than to a brief excursion (Fig. 2C). As only one geomagnetic event was identified, Su et al. [14] first proposed that the cultural layer, being only 3 m above the B/M boundary, should be much older than previously estimated. Though Løvlie et al. [15] acknowledged the possibility that the cultural layer may be incorporated into younger fluvial sediments that overlie the much older fluvio-lacustrine Nihewan Formation, Fan et al. [16] later proposed a more specific age of early-middle Mid-Pleistocene for the site based on sedimentation rates deduced from other depositional sections in Nihewan Basin. By correlating the magnetic signature with the marine oxygen isotope records, Wang et al. [17, 18] assigned the top soil of the cross-section to S1 (ca. 129 ka) in the Chinese loess/paleosol sequence, and thus proposed a numerical age of ∼500 ka for the site, but suggested that the Paleolithic artifacts and mammalian fossils might be held within a much younger fluvial unit.


26Al/10Be burial dating of Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin, northern China.

Tu H, Shen G, Li H, Xie F, Granger DE - PLoS ONE (2015)

Stratigraphy of the Xujiayao-Houjiayao Paleolithic site.(A) Photograph of the cross-section revealed during the excavation in 2012, the lower left inset shows more clearly an unconformity believed to mark the boundary between the third terrace of Liyi River and the underlying Nihewan Formation. (B) Lithostratigraphic column of the cross-section exposed in 2007–2008 (∼1 m shallower than A) with the position of the dating samples and their 26Al/10Be burial dates. (C) Lithostratigraphic column and polarity of the cross-section from where samples for magnetostratigraphic studies were taken (modified from Løvlie et al. [15]), along with the magnetostratigraphic dates [17, 18]. Also given are the U-series dates on fossil teeth [7]. Superscripts on ages indicate the dating methods (B, Burial dating; U, U-series dating on fossils; M, Magnetostratigraphic dating).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4338100&req=5

pone.0118315.g002: Stratigraphy of the Xujiayao-Houjiayao Paleolithic site.(A) Photograph of the cross-section revealed during the excavation in 2012, the lower left inset shows more clearly an unconformity believed to mark the boundary between the third terrace of Liyi River and the underlying Nihewan Formation. (B) Lithostratigraphic column of the cross-section exposed in 2007–2008 (∼1 m shallower than A) with the position of the dating samples and their 26Al/10Be burial dates. (C) Lithostratigraphic column and polarity of the cross-section from where samples for magnetostratigraphic studies were taken (modified from Løvlie et al. [15]), along with the magnetostratigraphic dates [17, 18]. Also given are the U-series dates on fossil teeth [7]. Superscripts on ages indicate the dating methods (B, Burial dating; U, U-series dating on fossils; M, Magnetostratigraphic dating).
Mentions: However, further paleomagnetic studies by an international team of Sino-Norwegian scientists challenged the above consensus. Su et al. [14] and Løvlie et al. [15] collected samples with a reduced sampling interval and extended the study section to greater depth. The reversed polarity zone previously recognized by Liu et al. [12] was found to be much thicker (6–12 m), and thus re-assigned to the Matuyama Chron rather than to a brief excursion (Fig. 2C). As only one geomagnetic event was identified, Su et al. [14] first proposed that the cultural layer, being only 3 m above the B/M boundary, should be much older than previously estimated. Though Løvlie et al. [15] acknowledged the possibility that the cultural layer may be incorporated into younger fluvial sediments that overlie the much older fluvio-lacustrine Nihewan Formation, Fan et al. [16] later proposed a more specific age of early-middle Mid-Pleistocene for the site based on sedimentation rates deduced from other depositional sections in Nihewan Basin. By correlating the magnetic signature with the marine oxygen isotope records, Wang et al. [17, 18] assigned the top soil of the cross-section to S1 (ca. 129 ka) in the Chinese loess/paleosol sequence, and thus proposed a numerical age of ∼500 ka for the site, but suggested that the Paleolithic artifacts and mammalian fossils might be held within a much younger fluvial unit.

Bottom Line: Based on biostratigraphical correlation and exploratory results from a variety of dating methods, the site has been widely accepted as early Upper Pleistocene in time.The site is thus younger than 340 ka at 95% confidence, which is at variance with the previous paleomagnetic results.On the other hand, our result suggests an age of older than 140 ka for the site's lower cultural deposits, which is consistent with recent post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IRSL) dating at 160-220 ka.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Geographical Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China.

ABSTRACT
The Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin is among the most important Paleolithic sites in China for having provided a rich collection of hominin and mammalian fossils and lithic artifacts. Based on biostratigraphical correlation and exploratory results from a variety of dating methods, the site has been widely accepted as early Upper Pleistocene in time. However, more recent paleomagnetic analyses assigned a much older age of ∼500 ka (thousand years). This paper reports the application of 26Al/10Be burial dating as an independent check. Two quartz samples from a lower cultural horizon give a weighted mean age of 0.24 ± 0.05 Ma (million years, 1σ). The site is thus younger than 340 ka at 95% confidence, which is at variance with the previous paleomagnetic results. On the other hand, our result suggests an age of older than 140 ka for the site's lower cultural deposits, which is consistent with recent post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IRSL) dating at 160-220 ka.

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