Limits...
Characterisation of the physical composition and microbial community structure of biofilms within a model full-scale drinking water distribution system.

Fish KE, Collins R, Green NH, Sharpe RL, Douterelo I, Osborn AM, Boxall JB - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The volume of EPS was 4.9 times greater than that of the cells within biofilms, with carbohydrates present as the dominant component.Fungi and archaea were established as important components of the biofilm community, although bacteria were more diverse.Moreover, biofilms from different positions were similar with respect to community structure and the quantity, composition and three-dimensional distribution of cells and EPS, indicating that active colonisation of the pipe wall is an important driver in material accumulation within the DWDS.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pennine Water Group, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom; NERC Biomolecular Analysis Facility, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, Western Bank, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Within drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), microorganisms form multi-species biofilms on internal pipe surfaces. A matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) is produced by the attached community and provides structure and stability for the biofilm. If the EPS adhesive strength deteriorates or is overcome by external shear forces, biofilm is mobilised into the water potentially leading to degradation of water quality. However, little is known about the EPS within DWDS biofilms or how this is influenced by community composition or environmental parameters, because of the complications in obtaining biofilm samples and the difficulties in analysing EPS. Additionally, although biofilms may contain various microbial groups, research commonly focuses solely upon bacteria. This research applies an EPS analysis method based upon fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in combination with digital image analysis (DIA), to concurrently characterize cells and EPS (carbohydrates and proteins) within drinking water biofilms from a full-scale DWDS experimental pipe loop facility with representative hydraulic conditions. Application of the EPS analysis method, alongside DNA fingerprinting of bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities, was demonstrated for biofilms sampled from different positions around the pipeline, after 28 days growth within the DWDS experimental facility. The volume of EPS was 4.9 times greater than that of the cells within biofilms, with carbohydrates present as the dominant component. Additionally, the greatest proportion of EPS was located above that of the cells. Fungi and archaea were established as important components of the biofilm community, although bacteria were more diverse. Moreover, biofilms from different positions were similar with respect to community structure and the quantity, composition and three-dimensional distribution of cells and EPS, indicating that active colonisation of the pipe wall is an important driver in material accumulation within the DWDS.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Cluster analysis of similarity using fingerprint profiles to show the similarity between A) bacterial, B) archaeal and C) fungal drinking water biofilm communities.Relative abundance data was derived from T-RFLP or ARISA analysis, sample identification numbers are shown and clusters are indicated with a bracket and number. Red lines indicate profiles not significantly dissimilar according to SIMPROF analysis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4338064&req=5

pone.0115824.g005: Cluster analysis of similarity using fingerprint profiles to show the similarity between A) bacterial, B) archaeal and C) fungal drinking water biofilm communities.Relative abundance data was derived from T-RFLP or ARISA analysis, sample identification numbers are shown and clusters are indicated with a bracket and number. Red lines indicate profiles not significantly dissimilar according to SIMPROF analysis.

Mentions: Comparisons of microbial community structure at each sample point demonstrated that, for each microbial group, Day 28 profiles clustered independently from those of the Day 0 biofilms (Fig. 5) and contained significantly different compositions of T-RFs (bacteria, global R = 1.0000, p = 0.0018; archaea, global R = 0.822, p = 0.0005) or ARISA amplicons (global R = 0.593, p = 0.0005). With respect to bacteria and archaea two distinct clusters were observed, with the exception of one replicate (210) in the archaeal community analysis which did not cluster with the communities present in Day 0 biofilm samples (cluster I) or with the biofilm communities present at Day 28 (cluster II, Fig. 5). Fungal community profiles formed three clusters (Fig. 5), the second of which incorporated Day 0 samples and one Day 28 sample (replicate 313). However, when analysed by presence/absence rather than relative abundance, all replicates from Day 0 clustered independently from those from Day 28, suggesting that the same ARISA amplicons were dominant between the samples in cluster II but that there was a difference in the richness of ARISA fragments between the two time points.


Characterisation of the physical composition and microbial community structure of biofilms within a model full-scale drinking water distribution system.

Fish KE, Collins R, Green NH, Sharpe RL, Douterelo I, Osborn AM, Boxall JB - PLoS ONE (2015)

Cluster analysis of similarity using fingerprint profiles to show the similarity between A) bacterial, B) archaeal and C) fungal drinking water biofilm communities.Relative abundance data was derived from T-RFLP or ARISA analysis, sample identification numbers are shown and clusters are indicated with a bracket and number. Red lines indicate profiles not significantly dissimilar according to SIMPROF analysis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4338064&req=5

pone.0115824.g005: Cluster analysis of similarity using fingerprint profiles to show the similarity between A) bacterial, B) archaeal and C) fungal drinking water biofilm communities.Relative abundance data was derived from T-RFLP or ARISA analysis, sample identification numbers are shown and clusters are indicated with a bracket and number. Red lines indicate profiles not significantly dissimilar according to SIMPROF analysis.
Mentions: Comparisons of microbial community structure at each sample point demonstrated that, for each microbial group, Day 28 profiles clustered independently from those of the Day 0 biofilms (Fig. 5) and contained significantly different compositions of T-RFs (bacteria, global R = 1.0000, p = 0.0018; archaea, global R = 0.822, p = 0.0005) or ARISA amplicons (global R = 0.593, p = 0.0005). With respect to bacteria and archaea two distinct clusters were observed, with the exception of one replicate (210) in the archaeal community analysis which did not cluster with the communities present in Day 0 biofilm samples (cluster I) or with the biofilm communities present at Day 28 (cluster II, Fig. 5). Fungal community profiles formed three clusters (Fig. 5), the second of which incorporated Day 0 samples and one Day 28 sample (replicate 313). However, when analysed by presence/absence rather than relative abundance, all replicates from Day 0 clustered independently from those from Day 28, suggesting that the same ARISA amplicons were dominant between the samples in cluster II but that there was a difference in the richness of ARISA fragments between the two time points.

Bottom Line: The volume of EPS was 4.9 times greater than that of the cells within biofilms, with carbohydrates present as the dominant component.Fungi and archaea were established as important components of the biofilm community, although bacteria were more diverse.Moreover, biofilms from different positions were similar with respect to community structure and the quantity, composition and three-dimensional distribution of cells and EPS, indicating that active colonisation of the pipe wall is an important driver in material accumulation within the DWDS.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pennine Water Group, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom; NERC Biomolecular Analysis Facility, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, Western Bank, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Within drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), microorganisms form multi-species biofilms on internal pipe surfaces. A matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) is produced by the attached community and provides structure and stability for the biofilm. If the EPS adhesive strength deteriorates or is overcome by external shear forces, biofilm is mobilised into the water potentially leading to degradation of water quality. However, little is known about the EPS within DWDS biofilms or how this is influenced by community composition or environmental parameters, because of the complications in obtaining biofilm samples and the difficulties in analysing EPS. Additionally, although biofilms may contain various microbial groups, research commonly focuses solely upon bacteria. This research applies an EPS analysis method based upon fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in combination with digital image analysis (DIA), to concurrently characterize cells and EPS (carbohydrates and proteins) within drinking water biofilms from a full-scale DWDS experimental pipe loop facility with representative hydraulic conditions. Application of the EPS analysis method, alongside DNA fingerprinting of bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities, was demonstrated for biofilms sampled from different positions around the pipeline, after 28 days growth within the DWDS experimental facility. The volume of EPS was 4.9 times greater than that of the cells within biofilms, with carbohydrates present as the dominant component. Additionally, the greatest proportion of EPS was located above that of the cells. Fungi and archaea were established as important components of the biofilm community, although bacteria were more diverse. Moreover, biofilms from different positions were similar with respect to community structure and the quantity, composition and three-dimensional distribution of cells and EPS, indicating that active colonisation of the pipe wall is an important driver in material accumulation within the DWDS.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus