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Associations between stereotype awareness, childhood trauma and psychopathology: a study in people with psychosis, their siblings and controls.

van Zelst C, van Nierop M, van Dam DS, Bartels-Velthuis AA, Delespaul P, GROUP-investigato - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In siblings, schizotypal features were associated with both types of SA (more schizotypy = more SA).In both patients and siblings, CT was associated with both types of SA (more CT = more SA), independent of symptoms (patients) or schizotypy (siblings).Thus, CT may not only impact on risk for illness onset, it may also increase SA associated with mental illness, potentially interfering with the recovery process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, EURON, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Stereotype awareness--or an individual's perception of the degree to which negative beliefs or stereotypes are held by the public--is an important factor mediating public stigma, self-stigma and their negative consequences. Research is required to assess how individuals become more sensitive to perceive stereotypes, pointing the way to therapeutic options to reduce its negative effects and increase stigma resilience. Because perception and interpretation can be guided by belief systems, and childhood trauma (CT) is reported to impact such beliefs, CT is explored in relation to stereotype awareness (SA) in persons with psychosis, their siblings and controls.

Method: Data from the GROUP project (Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis) were analyzed. SA was measured by devaluation scales which assess a respondent's perception of the degree to which stereotypes about people with mental illness and about their families are held by the public. CT was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (short form).

Results: In patients, symptoms of disorganization and emotional distress were associated with SA about people with mental illness. In siblings, schizotypal features were associated with both types of SA (more schizotypy = more SA). In both patients and siblings, CT was associated with both types of SA (more CT = more SA), independent of symptoms (patients) or schizotypy (siblings).

Conclusion: CT in people with psychosis and their siblings may sensitize to SA. Thus, CT may not only impact on risk for illness onset, it may also increase SA associated with mental illness, potentially interfering with the recovery process. CT-induced SA may indicate a heightened sensitivity to threat, which may also impact psychopathology.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Childhood trauma (CTQ-SF) and stereotype awareness (DCFS) in patients, siblings and controls.Example: Results for 30-year-old men of white ethnicity. CTQ-SF = Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form. DCFS = Devaluation of Consumers Families Scale. Presented are scores on DCFS associated with CTQ-SF scores (maximum CTQ-SF range of 1 (= all items rated as “never true”) until 5 (= all items rated as “very often true”).
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pone.0117386.g003: Childhood trauma (CTQ-SF) and stereotype awareness (DCFS) in patients, siblings and controls.Example: Results for 30-year-old men of white ethnicity. CTQ-SF = Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form. DCFS = Devaluation of Consumers Families Scale. Presented are scores on DCFS associated with CTQ-SF scores (maximum CTQ-SF range of 1 (= all items rated as “never true”) until 5 (= all items rated as “very often true”).

Mentions: All regression models were adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. In the first model (Table 2), group membership was associated with DCS, siblings and patients scoring higher than controls, as well as with DCFS, siblings scoring higher than controls. There was no association between CT and SA, but in this model a significant interaction between group and CT was apparent. Figs. 2 and 3 show associations between CT and DCS for these first two models.


Associations between stereotype awareness, childhood trauma and psychopathology: a study in people with psychosis, their siblings and controls.

van Zelst C, van Nierop M, van Dam DS, Bartels-Velthuis AA, Delespaul P, GROUP-investigato - PLoS ONE (2015)

Childhood trauma (CTQ-SF) and stereotype awareness (DCFS) in patients, siblings and controls.Example: Results for 30-year-old men of white ethnicity. CTQ-SF = Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form. DCFS = Devaluation of Consumers Families Scale. Presented are scores on DCFS associated with CTQ-SF scores (maximum CTQ-SF range of 1 (= all items rated as “never true”) until 5 (= all items rated as “very often true”).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4338025&req=5

pone.0117386.g003: Childhood trauma (CTQ-SF) and stereotype awareness (DCFS) in patients, siblings and controls.Example: Results for 30-year-old men of white ethnicity. CTQ-SF = Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form. DCFS = Devaluation of Consumers Families Scale. Presented are scores on DCFS associated with CTQ-SF scores (maximum CTQ-SF range of 1 (= all items rated as “never true”) until 5 (= all items rated as “very often true”).
Mentions: All regression models were adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. In the first model (Table 2), group membership was associated with DCS, siblings and patients scoring higher than controls, as well as with DCFS, siblings scoring higher than controls. There was no association between CT and SA, but in this model a significant interaction between group and CT was apparent. Figs. 2 and 3 show associations between CT and DCS for these first two models.

Bottom Line: In siblings, schizotypal features were associated with both types of SA (more schizotypy = more SA).In both patients and siblings, CT was associated with both types of SA (more CT = more SA), independent of symptoms (patients) or schizotypy (siblings).Thus, CT may not only impact on risk for illness onset, it may also increase SA associated with mental illness, potentially interfering with the recovery process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, EURON, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Stereotype awareness--or an individual's perception of the degree to which negative beliefs or stereotypes are held by the public--is an important factor mediating public stigma, self-stigma and their negative consequences. Research is required to assess how individuals become more sensitive to perceive stereotypes, pointing the way to therapeutic options to reduce its negative effects and increase stigma resilience. Because perception and interpretation can be guided by belief systems, and childhood trauma (CT) is reported to impact such beliefs, CT is explored in relation to stereotype awareness (SA) in persons with psychosis, their siblings and controls.

Method: Data from the GROUP project (Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis) were analyzed. SA was measured by devaluation scales which assess a respondent's perception of the degree to which stereotypes about people with mental illness and about their families are held by the public. CT was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (short form).

Results: In patients, symptoms of disorganization and emotional distress were associated with SA about people with mental illness. In siblings, schizotypal features were associated with both types of SA (more schizotypy = more SA). In both patients and siblings, CT was associated with both types of SA (more CT = more SA), independent of symptoms (patients) or schizotypy (siblings).

Conclusion: CT in people with psychosis and their siblings may sensitize to SA. Thus, CT may not only impact on risk for illness onset, it may also increase SA associated with mental illness, potentially interfering with the recovery process. CT-induced SA may indicate a heightened sensitivity to threat, which may also impact psychopathology.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus