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Dietary animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with obesity and cardio-metabolic indicators in European adolescents: the HELENA cross-sectional study.

Lin Y, Mouratidou T, Vereecken C, Kersting M, Bolca S, de Moraes AC, Cuenca-García M, Moreno LA, González-Gross M, Valtueña J, Labayen I, Grammatikaki E, Hallstrom L, Leclercq C, Ferrari M, Gottrand F, Beghin L, Manios Y, Ottevaere C, Van Oyen H, Molnar D, Kafatos A, Widhalm K, Gómez-Martinez S, Prieto LE, De Henauw S, Huybrechts I, HELENA study gro - Nutr J (2015)

Bottom Line: Protein intake was significantly lower in underweight subjects and higher in obese ones; the direction of the relationship was reversed after adjustments for body weight (g/(kg.d)).The inverse association of plant protein intakes was stronger with BMI z-score and body fat percentage (BF%) compared to animal protein intakes.Additionally, BMI and BF% were positively associated with energy percentage of animal protein.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, UZ - 4K3, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. Inge.Huybrechts@UGent.be.

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies suggest that dietary protein might play a beneficial role in combating obesity and its related chronic diseases. Total, animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with anthropometry and serum biomarkers in European adolescents using one standardised methodology across European countries are not well documented.

Objectives: To evaluate total, animal and plant protein intakes in European adolescents stratified by gender and age, and to investigate their associations with cardio-metabolic indicators (anthropometry and biomarkers).

Methods: The current analysis included 1804 randomly selected adolescents participating in the HELENA study (conducted in 2006-2007) aged 12.5-17.5 y (47% males) who completed two non-consecutive computerised 24-h dietary recalls. Associations between animal and plant protein intakes, and anthropometry and serum biomarkers were examined with General linear Model multivariate analysis.

Results: Average total protein intake exceeded the recommendations of World Health Organization and European Food Safety Authority. Mean total protein intake was 96 g/d (59% derived from animal protein). Total, animal and plant protein intakes (g/d) were significantly lower in females than in males and total and plant protein intakes were lower in younger participants (12.5-14.9 y). Protein intake was significantly lower in underweight subjects and higher in obese ones; the direction of the relationship was reversed after adjustments for body weight (g/(kg.d)). The inverse association of plant protein intakes was stronger with BMI z-score and body fat percentage (BF%) compared to animal protein intakes. Additionally, BMI and BF% were positively associated with energy percentage of animal protein.

Conclusions: This sample of European adolescents appeared to have adequate total protein intake. Our findings suggest that plant protein intakes may play a role in preventing obesity among European adolescents. Further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the potential beneficial effects observed in this study in the prevention of obesity and related chronic diseases.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Tertilesμof total protein intake (g/d) and anthropometric indicators in adolescents participating in HELENA-CSS (n = 1804).μTertile 1 (T1): <81 g/d; tertile 2 (T2): 81 g/d to 103 g/d; tertile 3 (T3): ≥103 g/d.
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Fig1: Tertilesμof total protein intake (g/d) and anthropometric indicators in adolescents participating in HELENA-CSS (n = 1804).μTertile 1 (T1): <81 g/d; tertile 2 (T2): 81 g/d to 103 g/d; tertile 3 (T3): ≥103 g/d.

Mentions: Figure 1 shows a significant decline in BF% across the total protein tertiles (P < 0.001) by age. But no significance was observed in males and females. The results of the GLM multivariate analysis showed that crude BF% was inversely associated with absolute animal and plant protein in model 1, but crude BMI z-score and BF% were positively associated with animal protein (E%) (Table 4). Absolute animal protein intake was inversely associated with crude serum biomarkers including TC, TG, VLDL-C and leptin, but positively with serum fasting glucose. While absolute plant protein intake was inversely associated with crude TC, HDL-C, and leptin, but positively with serum fasting glucose. After adjustments for fat intake (Model 2), BMI z-score became positively associated with absolute animal protein intake, but several significant associations found in model 1 disappeared. Leptin kept to be inversely associated with absolute animal protein intake in model 2, and BF%, TC and HDL-C with absolute plant protein intake. Only serum HDL-C became positively associated with absolute animal protein intake, after further adjusting for confounding factors, PA and interaction factors (Model 3). Inverse associations were observed between BMI z-scores and BF%, and absolute plant protein intake. Whereas both BMI z-scores and BF% were positively associated with animal protein (E%). No biomarker was associated with percentage of energy intake derived from animal and plant protein (data not shown).Figure 1


Dietary animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with obesity and cardio-metabolic indicators in European adolescents: the HELENA cross-sectional study.

Lin Y, Mouratidou T, Vereecken C, Kersting M, Bolca S, de Moraes AC, Cuenca-García M, Moreno LA, González-Gross M, Valtueña J, Labayen I, Grammatikaki E, Hallstrom L, Leclercq C, Ferrari M, Gottrand F, Beghin L, Manios Y, Ottevaere C, Van Oyen H, Molnar D, Kafatos A, Widhalm K, Gómez-Martinez S, Prieto LE, De Henauw S, Huybrechts I, HELENA study gro - Nutr J (2015)

Tertilesμof total protein intake (g/d) and anthropometric indicators in adolescents participating in HELENA-CSS (n = 1804).μTertile 1 (T1): <81 g/d; tertile 2 (T2): 81 g/d to 103 g/d; tertile 3 (T3): ≥103 g/d.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4334414&req=5

Fig1: Tertilesμof total protein intake (g/d) and anthropometric indicators in adolescents participating in HELENA-CSS (n = 1804).μTertile 1 (T1): <81 g/d; tertile 2 (T2): 81 g/d to 103 g/d; tertile 3 (T3): ≥103 g/d.
Mentions: Figure 1 shows a significant decline in BF% across the total protein tertiles (P < 0.001) by age. But no significance was observed in males and females. The results of the GLM multivariate analysis showed that crude BF% was inversely associated with absolute animal and plant protein in model 1, but crude BMI z-score and BF% were positively associated with animal protein (E%) (Table 4). Absolute animal protein intake was inversely associated with crude serum biomarkers including TC, TG, VLDL-C and leptin, but positively with serum fasting glucose. While absolute plant protein intake was inversely associated with crude TC, HDL-C, and leptin, but positively with serum fasting glucose. After adjustments for fat intake (Model 2), BMI z-score became positively associated with absolute animal protein intake, but several significant associations found in model 1 disappeared. Leptin kept to be inversely associated with absolute animal protein intake in model 2, and BF%, TC and HDL-C with absolute plant protein intake. Only serum HDL-C became positively associated with absolute animal protein intake, after further adjusting for confounding factors, PA and interaction factors (Model 3). Inverse associations were observed between BMI z-scores and BF%, and absolute plant protein intake. Whereas both BMI z-scores and BF% were positively associated with animal protein (E%). No biomarker was associated with percentage of energy intake derived from animal and plant protein (data not shown).Figure 1

Bottom Line: Protein intake was significantly lower in underweight subjects and higher in obese ones; the direction of the relationship was reversed after adjustments for body weight (g/(kg.d)).The inverse association of plant protein intakes was stronger with BMI z-score and body fat percentage (BF%) compared to animal protein intakes.Additionally, BMI and BF% were positively associated with energy percentage of animal protein.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, UZ - 4K3, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. Inge.Huybrechts@UGent.be.

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies suggest that dietary protein might play a beneficial role in combating obesity and its related chronic diseases. Total, animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with anthropometry and serum biomarkers in European adolescents using one standardised methodology across European countries are not well documented.

Objectives: To evaluate total, animal and plant protein intakes in European adolescents stratified by gender and age, and to investigate their associations with cardio-metabolic indicators (anthropometry and biomarkers).

Methods: The current analysis included 1804 randomly selected adolescents participating in the HELENA study (conducted in 2006-2007) aged 12.5-17.5 y (47% males) who completed two non-consecutive computerised 24-h dietary recalls. Associations between animal and plant protein intakes, and anthropometry and serum biomarkers were examined with General linear Model multivariate analysis.

Results: Average total protein intake exceeded the recommendations of World Health Organization and European Food Safety Authority. Mean total protein intake was 96 g/d (59% derived from animal protein). Total, animal and plant protein intakes (g/d) were significantly lower in females than in males and total and plant protein intakes were lower in younger participants (12.5-14.9 y). Protein intake was significantly lower in underweight subjects and higher in obese ones; the direction of the relationship was reversed after adjustments for body weight (g/(kg.d)). The inverse association of plant protein intakes was stronger with BMI z-score and body fat percentage (BF%) compared to animal protein intakes. Additionally, BMI and BF% were positively associated with energy percentage of animal protein.

Conclusions: This sample of European adolescents appeared to have adequate total protein intake. Our findings suggest that plant protein intakes may play a role in preventing obesity among European adolescents. Further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the potential beneficial effects observed in this study in the prevention of obesity and related chronic diseases.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus