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Improving intranasal delivery of neurological nanomedicine to the olfactory region using magnetophoretic guidance of microsphere carriers.

Xi J, Zhang Z, Si XA - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Bottom Line: It is crucial to developing new methods that can deliver drug particles more effectively to the olfactory region.The optimal particle size was found to be approximately 15 μm for effective magnetophoretic guidance while avoiding loss of particles to the walls in the anterior nose.A 64-fold-higher delivery of dosage was predicted in the magnetized nose compared to the control case, which did not have a magnetic field.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Although direct nose-to-brain drug delivery has multiple advantages, its application is limited by the extremely low delivery efficiency (<1%) to the olfactory region where drugs can enter the brain. It is crucial to developing new methods that can deliver drug particles more effectively to the olfactory region.

Materials and methods: We introduced a delivery method that used magnetophoresis to improve olfactory delivery efficiency. The performance of the proposed method was assessed numerically in an image-based human nose model. Influences of the magnet layout, magnet strength, drug-release position, and particle diameter on the olfactory dosage were examined.

Results and discussion: Results showed that particle diameter was a critical factor in controlling the motion of nasally inhaled ferromagnetic drug particles. The optimal particle size was found to be approximately 15 μm for effective magnetophoretic guidance while avoiding loss of particles to the walls in the anterior nose. Olfactory delivery efficiency was shown to be sensitive to the position and strength of magnets and the release position of drug particles. The results of this study showed that clinically significant olfactory doses (up to 45%) were feasible using the optimal combination of magnet layout, selective drug release, and microsphere-carrier diameter. A 64-fold-higher delivery of dosage was predicted in the magnetized nose compared to the control case, which did not have a magnetic field. However, the sensitivity of olfactory dosage to operating conditions and the unstable nature of magnetophoresis make controlled guidance of nasally inhaled aerosols still highly challenging.

No MeSH data available.


Magnetic field and particle trajectories within a two-plate channel.Notes: (A) control case; (B) layout 1; (C) layout 2; (D) layout 3.
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f3-ijn-10-1211: Magnetic field and particle trajectories within a two-plate channel.Notes: (A) control case; (B) layout 1; (C) layout 2; (D) layout 3.

Mentions: The feasibility of magnetophoretic control of particle motions was first assessed in a two-plate channel (Figure 3) with various magnet layouts. By setting multiple permanent magnets on the outside edges of the two plates, the trajectory of particles could be modified within the channel. In this simulation, the length of the channel was 150 mm, and the height was 10 mm. The magnetic permeability of the particles was 880 μH/m, and the relative magnetic permeability was 700 μH/m. The particle size tested was in the range of 1–30 μm. The density of particles was 1,500 kg/m3 considering that the droplets were a mixture of water and iron nanoparticles. The airflow and particles were inhaled into the nostrils at 0.5 m/s. The magnetic field and associated particle dynamics within the two plates are presented in Figure 3 for three different magnet settings.


Improving intranasal delivery of neurological nanomedicine to the olfactory region using magnetophoretic guidance of microsphere carriers.

Xi J, Zhang Z, Si XA - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Magnetic field and particle trajectories within a two-plate channel.Notes: (A) control case; (B) layout 1; (C) layout 2; (D) layout 3.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4334328&req=5

f3-ijn-10-1211: Magnetic field and particle trajectories within a two-plate channel.Notes: (A) control case; (B) layout 1; (C) layout 2; (D) layout 3.
Mentions: The feasibility of magnetophoretic control of particle motions was first assessed in a two-plate channel (Figure 3) with various magnet layouts. By setting multiple permanent magnets on the outside edges of the two plates, the trajectory of particles could be modified within the channel. In this simulation, the length of the channel was 150 mm, and the height was 10 mm. The magnetic permeability of the particles was 880 μH/m, and the relative magnetic permeability was 700 μH/m. The particle size tested was in the range of 1–30 μm. The density of particles was 1,500 kg/m3 considering that the droplets were a mixture of water and iron nanoparticles. The airflow and particles were inhaled into the nostrils at 0.5 m/s. The magnetic field and associated particle dynamics within the two plates are presented in Figure 3 for three different magnet settings.

Bottom Line: It is crucial to developing new methods that can deliver drug particles more effectively to the olfactory region.The optimal particle size was found to be approximately 15 μm for effective magnetophoretic guidance while avoiding loss of particles to the walls in the anterior nose.A 64-fold-higher delivery of dosage was predicted in the magnetized nose compared to the control case, which did not have a magnetic field.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Although direct nose-to-brain drug delivery has multiple advantages, its application is limited by the extremely low delivery efficiency (<1%) to the olfactory region where drugs can enter the brain. It is crucial to developing new methods that can deliver drug particles more effectively to the olfactory region.

Materials and methods: We introduced a delivery method that used magnetophoresis to improve olfactory delivery efficiency. The performance of the proposed method was assessed numerically in an image-based human nose model. Influences of the magnet layout, magnet strength, drug-release position, and particle diameter on the olfactory dosage were examined.

Results and discussion: Results showed that particle diameter was a critical factor in controlling the motion of nasally inhaled ferromagnetic drug particles. The optimal particle size was found to be approximately 15 μm for effective magnetophoretic guidance while avoiding loss of particles to the walls in the anterior nose. Olfactory delivery efficiency was shown to be sensitive to the position and strength of magnets and the release position of drug particles. The results of this study showed that clinically significant olfactory doses (up to 45%) were feasible using the optimal combination of magnet layout, selective drug release, and microsphere-carrier diameter. A 64-fold-higher delivery of dosage was predicted in the magnetized nose compared to the control case, which did not have a magnetic field. However, the sensitivity of olfactory dosage to operating conditions and the unstable nature of magnetophoresis make controlled guidance of nasally inhaled aerosols still highly challenging.

No MeSH data available.