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Zebrin II / aldolase C expression in the cerebellum of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox).

Aspden JW, Armstrong CL, Gutierrez-Ibanez CI, Hawkes R, Iwaniuk AN, Kohl T, Graham DJ, Wylie DR - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In contrast to birds and mammals, the cerebellum of the rattlesnake is much smaller and simpler, consisting of a small, unfoliated dome of cells.A pattern of alternating ZII+ and ZII- sagittal stripes cells was not observed: rather all Purkinje cells were ZII+.This suggests that ZII stripes have either been lost in snakes or that they evolved convergently in birds and mammals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2E9.

ABSTRACT
Aldolase C, also known as Zebrin II (ZII), is a glycolytic enzyme that is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the vertebrate cerebellum. In both mammals and birds, ZII is expressed heterogeneously, such that there are sagittal stripes of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+), alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with little or no expression (ZII-). The patterns of ZII+ and ZII- stripes in the cerebellum of birds and mammals are strikingly similar, suggesting that it may have first evolved in the stem reptiles. In this study, we examined the expression of ZII in the cerebellum of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). In contrast to birds and mammals, the cerebellum of the rattlesnake is much smaller and simpler, consisting of a small, unfoliated dome of cells. A pattern of alternating ZII+ and ZII- sagittal stripes cells was not observed: rather all Purkinje cells were ZII+. This suggests that ZII stripes have either been lost in snakes or that they evolved convergently in birds and mammals.

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ZII expression in the cerebellum of the western diamondback rattlesnake.A-D shows photomicrographs of ZII (red) expression in serial coronal sections of the rattlesnake cerebellum (caudal to rostral). The dashed vertical lines indicate the midline. All Purkinje cells are ZII+. E-G shows a portion of the section in D (see inset) at higher magnification labeled for both ZII (red; E) and calbindin (CB; green; F). As seen in the overlay (G), all Purkinje cells are double-labeled. Similarly H-J shows a portion of the section in C at higher magnification labeled for both ZII and CB. K shows a dorsal view of the wholemount of the C. atrox brain that was stained for ZII. Note that the cerebellum is entirely ZII immunopositive. L-N shows a coronal section from a pigeon cerebellum processed for ZII (red; L) and CB (green; M). The overlay is shown in N. Other abbreviations; a = anterior, p = posterior, d = dorsal, v = ventral, gl = granule layer, PL = Purkinje Layer; ml = molecular layer. Scale bars: 250 μm in A (applies for A-D); 50 μm in E (applies for E-G), H (applies for H-J) and L (applies for L-N); 1mm in K.
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pone.0117539.g002: ZII expression in the cerebellum of the western diamondback rattlesnake.A-D shows photomicrographs of ZII (red) expression in serial coronal sections of the rattlesnake cerebellum (caudal to rostral). The dashed vertical lines indicate the midline. All Purkinje cells are ZII+. E-G shows a portion of the section in D (see inset) at higher magnification labeled for both ZII (red; E) and calbindin (CB; green; F). As seen in the overlay (G), all Purkinje cells are double-labeled. Similarly H-J shows a portion of the section in C at higher magnification labeled for both ZII and CB. K shows a dorsal view of the wholemount of the C. atrox brain that was stained for ZII. Note that the cerebellum is entirely ZII immunopositive. L-N shows a coronal section from a pigeon cerebellum processed for ZII (red; L) and CB (green; M). The overlay is shown in N. Other abbreviations; a = anterior, p = posterior, d = dorsal, v = ventral, gl = granule layer, PL = Purkinje Layer; ml = molecular layer. Scale bars: 250 μm in A (applies for A-D); 50 μm in E (applies for E-G), H (applies for H-J) and L (applies for L-N); 1mm in K.

Mentions: The C. atrox cerebellum is unfoliated, and consists of a sheet of cells in a depression formed caudally by the swelling of the medulla and rostrally by the optic tectum (Fig 1A,B). In coronal sections and sagittal sections (Fig. 1C-E), the typical laminae of the cerebellum are clearly visible: the granular, Purkinje and molecular layers (gl, PL, ml). There is with a paucity of Purkinje cells at the midline (Fig. 1C,D). Note that the Purkinje layer is not an orderly monolayer as is typically observed in mature birds and mammals, but is several cells thick (Fig. 1F). This corroborates an early report by Steida [58] first who first noted that the Purkinje cells are found scattered throughout the molecular layer in snakes. In the anterior-most sections of the cerebellum (i.e. the anterior 100–150 microns of the cerebellum in adult snakes), the Purkinje cells appear as clusters separated by gaps containing no Purkinje cells (Fig. 1C; see also Fig. 2D-G). These clusters are symmetrical about the midline (Fig. 1C, 2D). It is unclear if the gaps between these Purkinje cell clusters are akin to the raphes observed in the developing cerebella of birds and mammals [59], [60].


Zebrin II / aldolase C expression in the cerebellum of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox).

Aspden JW, Armstrong CL, Gutierrez-Ibanez CI, Hawkes R, Iwaniuk AN, Kohl T, Graham DJ, Wylie DR - PLoS ONE (2015)

ZII expression in the cerebellum of the western diamondback rattlesnake.A-D shows photomicrographs of ZII (red) expression in serial coronal sections of the rattlesnake cerebellum (caudal to rostral). The dashed vertical lines indicate the midline. All Purkinje cells are ZII+. E-G shows a portion of the section in D (see inset) at higher magnification labeled for both ZII (red; E) and calbindin (CB; green; F). As seen in the overlay (G), all Purkinje cells are double-labeled. Similarly H-J shows a portion of the section in C at higher magnification labeled for both ZII and CB. K shows a dorsal view of the wholemount of the C. atrox brain that was stained for ZII. Note that the cerebellum is entirely ZII immunopositive. L-N shows a coronal section from a pigeon cerebellum processed for ZII (red; L) and CB (green; M). The overlay is shown in N. Other abbreviations; a = anterior, p = posterior, d = dorsal, v = ventral, gl = granule layer, PL = Purkinje Layer; ml = molecular layer. Scale bars: 250 μm in A (applies for A-D); 50 μm in E (applies for E-G), H (applies for H-J) and L (applies for L-N); 1mm in K.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4334253&req=5

pone.0117539.g002: ZII expression in the cerebellum of the western diamondback rattlesnake.A-D shows photomicrographs of ZII (red) expression in serial coronal sections of the rattlesnake cerebellum (caudal to rostral). The dashed vertical lines indicate the midline. All Purkinje cells are ZII+. E-G shows a portion of the section in D (see inset) at higher magnification labeled for both ZII (red; E) and calbindin (CB; green; F). As seen in the overlay (G), all Purkinje cells are double-labeled. Similarly H-J shows a portion of the section in C at higher magnification labeled for both ZII and CB. K shows a dorsal view of the wholemount of the C. atrox brain that was stained for ZII. Note that the cerebellum is entirely ZII immunopositive. L-N shows a coronal section from a pigeon cerebellum processed for ZII (red; L) and CB (green; M). The overlay is shown in N. Other abbreviations; a = anterior, p = posterior, d = dorsal, v = ventral, gl = granule layer, PL = Purkinje Layer; ml = molecular layer. Scale bars: 250 μm in A (applies for A-D); 50 μm in E (applies for E-G), H (applies for H-J) and L (applies for L-N); 1mm in K.
Mentions: The C. atrox cerebellum is unfoliated, and consists of a sheet of cells in a depression formed caudally by the swelling of the medulla and rostrally by the optic tectum (Fig 1A,B). In coronal sections and sagittal sections (Fig. 1C-E), the typical laminae of the cerebellum are clearly visible: the granular, Purkinje and molecular layers (gl, PL, ml). There is with a paucity of Purkinje cells at the midline (Fig. 1C,D). Note that the Purkinje layer is not an orderly monolayer as is typically observed in mature birds and mammals, but is several cells thick (Fig. 1F). This corroborates an early report by Steida [58] first who first noted that the Purkinje cells are found scattered throughout the molecular layer in snakes. In the anterior-most sections of the cerebellum (i.e. the anterior 100–150 microns of the cerebellum in adult snakes), the Purkinje cells appear as clusters separated by gaps containing no Purkinje cells (Fig. 1C; see also Fig. 2D-G). These clusters are symmetrical about the midline (Fig. 1C, 2D). It is unclear if the gaps between these Purkinje cell clusters are akin to the raphes observed in the developing cerebella of birds and mammals [59], [60].

Bottom Line: In contrast to birds and mammals, the cerebellum of the rattlesnake is much smaller and simpler, consisting of a small, unfoliated dome of cells.A pattern of alternating ZII+ and ZII- sagittal stripes cells was not observed: rather all Purkinje cells were ZII+.This suggests that ZII stripes have either been lost in snakes or that they evolved convergently in birds and mammals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2E9.

ABSTRACT
Aldolase C, also known as Zebrin II (ZII), is a glycolytic enzyme that is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the vertebrate cerebellum. In both mammals and birds, ZII is expressed heterogeneously, such that there are sagittal stripes of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+), alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with little or no expression (ZII-). The patterns of ZII+ and ZII- stripes in the cerebellum of birds and mammals are strikingly similar, suggesting that it may have first evolved in the stem reptiles. In this study, we examined the expression of ZII in the cerebellum of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). In contrast to birds and mammals, the cerebellum of the rattlesnake is much smaller and simpler, consisting of a small, unfoliated dome of cells. A pattern of alternating ZII+ and ZII- sagittal stripes cells was not observed: rather all Purkinje cells were ZII+. This suggests that ZII stripes have either been lost in snakes or that they evolved convergently in birds and mammals.

Show MeSH